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A SKE.LE.T-ON QUTJLJNE 



-OF 



RKKK HISTORY 



BY 

EVELYN ABBOTT, M.A., LL.D. 

LATE KELLOW AND TUTOR OK BALX.IOL COI.LEGE, OXFORD 



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. 

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON 

NEW YORK, BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA 

j. 9 I O 



B!MDERYOE: 



1951 



PREFACE. 

IN compiling these Outlines I have drawn from 
various sources. In the introductory portion, Ideler's 
Handbuch der Chronologie has been of the most 
service, though I owe something to J. Brandis's 
excellent monograph on early Greek chronology. The 
important work of A. Mommsen, GJironologie^ etc., 
had not appeared when I wrote the section on the 
Calendar, but in regard to the Attic festivals I am 
indebted to the same writer's Heortologie. In the 
Tables I have used Fischer's Zeittafeln, which unfortu 
nately only go down to 560 B.C.; Clinton's Fasti 
Hellenici ; and the chronological table appended to the 
German edition of Curtius's History of Greece. In 
regard to the Peloponnesian war, Thucydides is, of 
course, sufficient; the period which follows is more 
confused, for no amount of ingenuity can introduce 
precision into the chronology of Xenophon. For 
the period of Demosthenes, A. Schaefer Demosthenes 



PREFACE. 



und seine Zeit is an admirable guide. Lastly, in 
regard to Alexander, I have used Droysen and Grote. 

For part of the Literary chronology, I have drawn 
largely on an admirable paper by Diels in the 
Ehemisches Museum. 

The outlines of Athenian and Lacedaemonian Con 
stitutional History are mainly taken from Schomann's 
Antwfttttates juris puUici Graecorum. The chronology of 
this part of Greek History is often so uncertain, that I 
did not venture to include it in the tables. 

E. A. 



PREFACE TO WE W EDITION (1898). 

IN this edition a few corrections have been made in 
the chronological tables; and a short analysis of the 
'AOrjvafav HoAtTeta has been added to the sketch of 
Athenian Constitutional History (p. 165). 

E. A. 



CONTENTS. 
fart I. 

CHBONOLOGY AND GENEALOGIES. 

CHRONOLOGY- 
PAGE 
I. Sources of OUT knowledge of Greek Chronology, and 

the difficulties attending it, ..... 7 

II. The Attic Calendar, 10 

a. Definitions, Cycles, 10 

d. Names of the Attic months, 14 

c. Prytanies, . 15 

d. Division of the month, ... .15 

III. Attic Festivals, 16 

IV. Bules for reducing Olympiads into Tears B. c. and vice 

versa, ......... 18 

GENEALOGIES 

I. Argive (Earlier), 19 

II. Argive (Later), . ...... 20 

III. ThePelopids, .21 

IV. Kings of Lacedaemoiij 22 

Note on the List of Spartan Kings, .... 23 

V. Argive Kings from the Return to Pheidon, ... 24 

VI. List of Messenian Kings, 25 

VII. List of Kings of Corinth, 26 

VIII. Kings of Attica, 27 

Note on the Attic List, 28 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

IX. Cretan Kings, ........ 29 

X. Aeacids, 30 

XI. Kings of Thebes, 31 

XII. The Hellenes, 82 

XIII A. Kings of Macedonia, 33 

XIII.B. Details of the later Kings, ...,,. 34 

XIV. Second Assyrian Empire, 35 

XV. Kings of Egypt, ........ 36 

XVI. Lydian Kings, ........ 37 

XVII. Kings of Media, 38 

XVIII. Second Babylonian Empire, 39 

XIX. Athenian Families, 40 

XX Athenian Archons 3 41 

XXI List of Victors in the Stadium or Foot-race at Olympia, 45 



fart IE 

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES. 

I. From the Trojan War to the First Olympiad, . . 53 
Note on the Date of the Trojan War, ... 55 
Note on the Date of Lyeurgus, . . . .57 

II. The Olympiads, 59 



III. 

Constitutional History of Athens and Lacedaemon, . 147 



PART L 
CHRONOLOGY AND GENEALOGIES 



CHRONOLOGY. 



SOURCES OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF GREEK CHRONOLOGY, 

AND THE DIFFICULTIES ATTENDING IT. 

IN all ancient chronology we must distinguish the dates 
which have come down to us on the authority of ancient 
writers from those which we attempt to fix ourselves by various 
computations. In regard to the first, we have to inquire what 
is the value of the authority from which we have received the 
date, and what means had our authority of fixing it. For even 
if we allow that records of events were kept for a long time 
before any attempt was made at a systematic chronology, these 
records were nevertheless arranged according to the magis 
trates or kings of the cities in which the events occurred ; there 
was no general era in existence, by which the various records 
could be brought into accurate relation to each other. 

The list of the priestesses of Argos (the oldest list used in 
chronology) was published by Hellanicus, the elder contem 
porary of Herodotus, who also published a list of the victors 
in the Carnean Festival at Sparta. The same author seems 
to have revised the early Attic chronology. He may have had 
access to archives of the Neleid families, but in some points it 
is clear that his computations are mere fictions, invented with 
the object of bringing the chronology into a certain fixed 
scheme, and Thucydides thought it necessary to speak of the 
want of accuracy in the chronology of Hellanicus for the period 
between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. Lists of the 
Spartan "kings were in existence in the time of Herodotus. 
The list of the Olympic victors was published by Hippias of 
Elis, but it was not made the basis of chronology till Timaeus 
of Tauromenium (B.C. 264). Other lists were those of the 



8 CHRONOLOGY. 



archons at Athens, first published by Demetrius of Plialerum, 
and of the ephors of Sparta. 

The first scholar who attempted to draw up a systematic 
chronology was Eratosthenes of Alexandria (B.C. 240), whose 
labours were the foundation of all that came after. His 
work was epitomised and corrected by Apollodorus (B.C. 140). 
This smaller work, which was composed in verse, became the 
standard manual on the subject in antiquity. If we possessed 
the works of these great chronologists entire, we should be in 
a much better position than we are, for the later writers 
(Africanus, Eusebius, Jerome, Syncellus), from whom our 
dates have come to us, copied and misunderstood them. Even 
in Eusebius we find that one and the same man and event is 
attributed to different years, a confusion which must have 
arisen from combining more than one work on chronology in 
his own treatise. In Suidas things are even worse ; we have 
mere blunders, a man's floruit being put for his birth, or vice 
versa. As a rale, the later the authority the worse it is, because 
there is less of intelligent work, and more of slavish copying. 

But even the best works on chronology in antiquity seem 
to have laboured under certain deficiencies, which were perhaps 
unavoidable at the time. Heigns are not distinguished from 
generations. The average length of a generation may be put 
at 30 or 33| years (three generations making up a century), 
but reigns are shorter, and an average of 25 years is perhaps as 
much as can be allowed. On this calculation, nine generations 
make 300 years, but nine reigns make only 225 years. But it 
will be seen from the lists of early kings in Corinth, Sparta, 
and Argos (given below), that even 33J years are below the 
average of the reigns which are required to cover the time 
between the first Olympiad and the traditional dates of such 
events as the Trojan War and the Return of the Heracleids. 

Again, attempts were made to reduce the chronology to 
system. In the scheme of Attic chronology attributed to 
Hellanicus, the same number of years is assumed for the reign 
of the Neleid family at Athens, and for the interval between 



CHRONOLOGY. 



Cecrops and the Fall of Troy, and in oider to "bring this about, 
the old Attic kings are increased from four to nine. Again, 
striking events are made to synchronise, so that even in the time 
of Herodotus the battles of Himera and Salamis are supposed 
to have occurred on the same day. Or great men are brought 
into connection with each other, and we get a date for the 
Seven "Wise Men. Or the precise date of a man's birth was un 
known, and his period had to be fixed by his connection with 
some well-known public event. Lastly, it was common in 
Greek history to attribute a number of events, differing by 
many years, to one and the same person. The date attributed 
to Lycurgus may have varied with the reforms attributed to him. 
With regard to received dates then, a student of chronology 
has first to ascertain, whenever he can, whether the date which 
be finds in Eusebius and Syncellus is derived from Eratos 
thenes or some other good authority, and then to inquire what 
grounds Eratosthenes had for fixing it. 

A distinction is generally drawn between the chronology of 
the events up to the date of the first Olympiad (776 B.C.), and 
of the events beyond it. The first are regarded as fixed and 
certain, the second as legendary. Eusebius, Praep. Evang. x. 
10, p*XP L P 1 ^ *OXv/Mriada>i' ov8ev aKpifSes terropT/rcu rols 
"EXX^o-t, rravrctiv crvyK^v^ev^v /cat KOTO. {JLTJ^V avrots r&virpb TOT) 
(rvfjL(j)a>vovvT<x>v. ("Down to the Olympiads nothing accurate 
has been recorded by the Greeks, everything being in confusion 
and full of discrepancies.") It is, in fact, pretty certain that 
the Greeks had, or believed that they had, an accurate record 
of years from the first Olympiad, by which events could be 
dated, and that before the first Olympiad they fixed dates by 
genealogies. As the genealogies differed, the dates fixed upon 
them differed. Hence there were many different dates for the 
capture of Troy. 

Whenever we have a reference, in connection with a historical 
event, to an eclipse or any other astronomical phenomenon, we 
are of course, enabled to fix the date with accuracy. There is, 
for instance, no doubt about the beginning of the Pelopon- 



CHRONOLOGY. 



neslan War, or of the retreat from Syracuse. Some check of 
this kind is absolutely necessary in the great confusion of 
ancient calendars, owing to which all attempts to fix the day of 
events, at any rate before the invention of the Metonic Cycle 
at Athens in 432 B.C., are extremely doubtful. 

Other dates can of course be fixed approximately by their 
relation to events of which the date is known. Thus the 
chronology of the Lydian and Persian monarchs depends on 
the date of the capture of Sardes by Cyrus, and it will vary 
by a few years according to the date established for that event. 
Many of the events recorded by Herodotus can only be fixed 
vaguely, as they come after or before other events ; and, in 
fact, whatever the historical value of the list of Olympic victors 
may be, there are comparatively few dates in Greek history 
before 432 B.C. which can be fixed with precision. 

II. 

THE ATTIC CALENDAK. 
a. Definitions, Cycles. 

A day is a revolution of the sun. This may be calculated 
from one culmination to another, i.e. from the time when the 
sun touches the meridian to the time when he touches it 
again, and the meridian may be the day meridian (mid-day) 
or the night meridian (midnight), which is the point from 
which we calculate our day. Or it may be calculated from 
sunrise to sunrise, or from sunset to sunset, but in this case 
the length of the day, unless corrected, will vary greatly. 
Hours, minutes, and seconds are divisions of the d<iy. 
A month is the period 
(1), in which the moon performs her orbit. This is a 

periodic mouthy 27 days, 7 hrs. ? 43', 5" in length j 
(2), which elapses between one conjunction of the sun 
and moon and another, a Synodic month. The sun 
advances while the moon is performing her orbifc, 
and the space over which he has advanced must be 



THE ATTIC CALENDAR. 11 

made up before she can again overtake Mm. This 
is the month used in calendars ; the average length 
is 29 days, 12 hrs., 44', 3". 
A year is the period in which the year returns 

(1), to the same star, a sidereal year, 365 days, 6 hrs., 

9', 10"; 

(2), to the same place in the equator, a tropical year. This 
is somewhat shorter than the sidereal year, owing 
to the precession of the equinoxes ; it is roughly 
365$ days in length. This is the year used in 
calendars. 

Our calendar is arranged on the solar year, the moon being 
disregarded. This basis of computation was derived from 
Egypt, where from a very early time a solar year was known, 
consisting of twelve months of 30 days, with fiye days added. 
The Egyptians were also aware that this year was too short by 
a quarter of a day. But it was late before the Greeks became 
acquainted with this computation. For a long time they 
reckoned by lunar months, and were indeed ignorant of the 
exact length of these. They assumed it to be 29 1 days, and 
as they allowed twelve months to the year, they thus obtained 
a year of (29^x12=) 354 days. They did not divide the 
months equally; six were "fall" months of 30 days, and six 
were "hollow" months of 29 days, the full and the hollow 
months alternating regularly. It was soon discovered that 
such a year was too short ; and the defect was remedied by 
inserting intercalary months (e/^3oXi/naioi). Of the mode in 
which the insertion was made in the earliest times, we have no 
knowledge ; the additional months could not be inserted with 
any degree of accuracy till cycles had been arranged in which 
che moon and the seasons of the year were supposed to coin 
cide, i.e. in which the months which depended on the moon 
and the years which were governed by the sun were commen 
surable. The discrepancy between the two would be notice 
able in ancient Greece, even though they had no solar year, 
because the festivals were fixed (like our Easter) by the moon, 



12 THE ATTIC CALENDAR. 

and many operations of husbandry were fixed by the rising of 
constellations, etc. The relative position of the two would 
be found to change as the lunar years fell behind the true 
time. 

It may have been Solon to whom the Athenians owed the 
regular arrangement of full and hollow months in the year 
(IDELER, i. 266). He also named the last day of the month evrj 
Kal vea as belonging to both months, the old and the new, and 
gave the name vovfjaqvLa to the day on which the moon was 
first visible, i.e. to the day after the conjunction from which 
the month really dates. 

A month calculated at 29^ days is 44' 3" short of the full 
length, hence a year of 12 such months is about 9 hours too 
short for the lunar time. It is also 11 J days behind the solar 
year. The first attempt at correction was to insert every other 
year an intercalary month of 30 days. This gave 354 + 354+ 
30 = 738 days for 25 months ; i.e. each month averaged 29 Jf 
days, which was nearly correct. But two solar years amount 
to 7304 days, so that the double year of 25 lunar months was 
in excess of two solar years by 7^ days. 

This was perhaps the system of Solon. It could have been 
made tolerably correct by leaving out a month of 30 days in 
every eight years, i.e. by intercalating three, not four, months 
in the eight years. This consideration may have led the 
Greeks to their octennial cycle, of which Genainus gives the 
following account (!DELEE, i. 294). 

" Discovering the imperfection of their trieteric system (such 
is the Greek form for a system extending to two years, dia 
rpirov erouff), the Greeks established an octennial cycle, con 
taining 2922 days in 99 months, three being intercalary. The 
lunar year contains 354 days, the solar year 365J ; the latter 
therefore has 11J days in excess of the former. Now 11J days, 
if multiplied by eight, gives 90 days, or three months of 30 
days ; thence in eight years the lunar time is three months 
(90 days) behind the solar. This led to the insertion of three 
months in a cycle of eight years. These intercalary months 



00 

^^ THE A TTIC CALENDAR. 13 

<4 ; : 

were inserted at even intervals as far as possible,, in the third 
(ij fifth, and eighth year." But, as Geminus proceeds to point out, 
~ the length assumed for the lunar month (29 J days) was incorrect. 
He puts it at 29 \ days + 3 ^ of a day. Ninety-nine months 
on this computation would make up 2923J days, hut eight 
solar years make up 2922 days ; i.e. in a cycle of eight years, 
the lunar time is a day and a half in excess of the solar 
time. The discrepancy can be remedied by adding three days 
to the solar time in sixteen years, but this remedy makes the 
solar time three days too long in sixteen years, or 30 days too 
long in 160 years. 18ie system was therefore corrected by 
leaving out one intercalary month in 160 years. 

Even this is incorrect. The lunar month, even as fixed at 
29 J and -j s days was found to be 25" too short (according to 
the calculation of Hipparchus). In 160 years, 25" a month 
amounts to a deficiency of 13 hours, and as the month of 30 
days, omitted once in 160 years, is 11 hours too long for a 
lunar month, the deficiency (11 + 13 hours) was made up by 
adding one day in 160 years. 

Whether these corrections were ever carried out is doubtful ; 

they were probably superseded by a better system, before 

^ sufficient time had elapsed to put into practice the corrections 

<BSA which had been made in theory. In 432 B.C., Meton invented 

-fl a different cycle, consisting of 19 years. In 19 years there are 

^ - 6940 days and 235 months, including 7 intercalated months, 

and each year averages 365^ days. The 235 months were 

'^"divided ^ HO ^ an( ^- ^5 hollow. The regular alter- 

nation of full and hollow was discontinued, every 64th day 

being omitted, in order to bring down 7050 days (235 months 

(J) X30 days) to the required number of 6940. 

,. This period was faulty in regard to the solar year, which was 

^g- of a day too long. It was therefore corrected by Calippus, 

^** who instituted a cycle of 76 years = four Metonic cycles, and 

omitted a day in each cycle. This period was regarded by 

Geminus as the most accurate. 

The cycle of Meton was invented in OL 87.1. =432 B.C., but 



14 THE ATTIC CALENDAR. 

whether it was at once adopted or not is doubtful. Boeckh 
thinks that it was not, and that for some time at any rate, the 
Athenians went on with the octennial cycle as corrected by 
the solar year of 365} days, which Eudoxus, the friend of 
Plato, borrowed from Egypt. But whenever introduced, the 
cycle dates from July 16, 432 B.C. This was the first day of 
Hecatombaeon, in the first year of the first cycle of nineteen 
years. 

b. Names of the Attic months. 

The Attic months are as follows. The exact day on which 

the year began varied ; but, speaking roughly, the Attic 
months began in the English months opposite : 

Hecatombaeon, .... July. 

Metageitnion, . . . August. 

Boedromion, . , September. 

Pyanepsion, . . i October. 

Maemacterion, . November. 

Poseideon, . December. 

GameHon, * January. 

Anthesterion, .... February. 

Elaphebolion, .... March. 

Munychion, .... April. 

Thargelion, .... May. 

Scirophorion. .... June. 

"When an intercalary month was needed it was placed after 
Poseideon, as Poseideon II. 1 

The Attic year thus began at the summer solstice, and in 
this respect coincided with the Olympic year. Whether this 
was always the case is doubtful ; from the position of the 
intercalary month, which would naturally come at the end of 
the year, it seems not improbable that the year once began at 
the winter solstice, as with us. 

i But cp. Dittenberger, Syll. Inscr. 13, where Hecatombaeon is the 
intercalary month ; it was inserted by the arehon. 



THE ATTIC CALENDAR. 15 

c. Prytanies. 

The civic year of the Athenians was not reckoned "by months, 
but by prytanies. The ten tribes of Cleisthenes were repre 
sented by fifty prytanies for each, and these held office in an 
order established by lot at the beginning of the year. The 
time during which each tribe held office was a "prytany ;" the 
kibe in office was the presiding tribe. In an ordinary year of 
354 days, the first six prytanies consisted of 35 days each, the 
last four of 36 (IDELEE, i. 289), but in an intercalary year the 
prytanies would rise to 38 and 39 days. 

d. Division of the month. 

The Attic month was divided into three decades. The first 
day of the month was the vovprjvia, and as a rule began with 
the first appearance of the moon in the evening, for the Attic 
day began at sunset. The actual conjunction of sun and moon 
was vovfj,r)via Kara creKrjvrjv (THUC. ii. 28). 

The first ten days of the month were reckoned in the order 
of the numbers, the word ia-Tapevov being added, e.g. 

1. vovfjujvia. 

2. Sevrepa IcrTafjievov, 

3. TpLTJ] l(JTafJ.VQV. 

4. TtrdpTT) idTajjLevov. 

5. Trt 

6. K 



8. oySo?; tcrra/ieVov. 

9. evvdrr) icrra/zeVoi;. 

10. deltas or fie/carq 

The days from the tenth to the twentieth were reckoned by 
their number with the addition eVt Se'/ca. 

11. 7Tp>r77 7rt 8e/ca. 

12. Sevrepa rt 6V/ca, etc. 
20. CLKCLS. 

The days from the twentieth to the last day of the month 



16 THE ATTIC CALENDAR. 

were known as the ehaSes. From the twenty-first, they were 
calculated, like Boman time, from, the end of the month, and 
the word <&Wros was added ; e.g. in a full month ; 

21. fie/cdr?; (pdivovros. 

22. evvarr] <j)Qivovro$, 

23. oySorj <j)6ivovTQs. 

24. /3<$oju,J7 (pdivovTos* 

25. etfn? (pQivovros. 

26. 7T6/X7TT77 (j.)dlVOVTQ. 

27. rerdprrj or rerpas (pQivovros. 

28. rpm; (J)@LVOVTO$. 

29. devrepa fyQLvovros. 

30. ^77 /cal 3/ea. 

In a "hollow" month, with 29 days, either (1) the 21st day 
was evvaTrj (f>BivovTos y or (2) the notation was unchanged, and 
omitted. 



III. 

ATTIC FESTIVALS. 
jFIecatombaeon. 

xir. Cronia. 

xvi. Synoecia. 

xxiv. -xxix. Great Panathenaea. 

xxvii.-xxvm. Little Panathenaea. 

Metageitnion has no festivals. 

Boedromwn. 

in. Niceteria. 

v. Genesia. 

vi. Marathon festival. 

xiii. Proerosia. 

xvi. -xxv. Eleusinia. 

Pyanepsion. 

vi. Kybernesia. 

vii. Pyanepsia and Oscophoria. 



ATTIC FESTIVALS. 



VIII. -IX. 

X. 

XI. 

X1I.-XIV. 

XXVII. -XXIX. 

XXX. 

Maemacterion. 

XIX. -XXI. 

Poseideon. 

VIII.-XI. 

Gamelion. 

VIII.-XI. 
XXVII. 

Anthesterion. 

XI.-XI1I. 
XIX. -XXI. 

XXI II. 

Elaphebolion. 

VIII.-XI1I. 
XIV. 

Munychion. 

VI. 

XVI. 

XIX. 

Thargelion. 

VI. -VII. 
XIX. 

xx. 

XXV. 

Scirophorion. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 



Thesea. 

Stenia. 

Thesmoplioria. 

Thesmoplioria in the city. 

Apaturia. 

Chalcea. 

Zeus Georgos. 
Piraea. 

Lenaea. 
Gamelia, 



An thesteria. 
Little Mysteries. 
Diasia. 

Great Dionysia, 
Pandia. 

Delphinia. 
MunycMa. 
Olynipia. 

Thargelia. 
Callynteria. 
Bendidea. 
Plynteria. 

Scirophoria, 
Arrephoria. 
Buphonia, 



i8 REDUCTION OF OLYMPIADS. 

IV. 

KULES FOR REDUCING OLYMPIADS INTO YEABS B.C. 
AND VICE VEHSA. 

(1.) Remember that 01. 1. 1. means the year extending from 
July 776 B.C. to July 775 B.C., and that each Olympiad is 
equal to four years. 

Hence, in order to reduce Olympiads to years B.C., the 
number of Olympiads must be multiplied by four, and the odd 
years (if any) must be added in. Thus : 01. 70. 3. must 
become 70 x 4 + 3 = 283. 

But we cannot at once deduct 283 from 776, because OL 1. 1. 
(which is included in the multiplication by four) gives 
1 x 44- 1 =5 for the first Olympiad which is our starting-point. 

Add therefore 5 to 776 B.C. before subtracting the Olympiads 
multiplied as above, e.g. 

781 -283 = 498 for 01. 70. 3. 



(2.) Conversely, when reducing years B.C. to Olympiads, add 
5 to 776, then deduct the years B.C. and divide the result by 
four, e.g. to find the Olympiad for 500 B.a 

' 776 + 5 = 781 
500 

281 

OQT 

- =70. 1. the Olympiad corresponding to 500 B.C. 

06s. If the quotient is without remainder, the year is the 
fourth of the preceding Olympiad: *=7Q*=OL 69. 4. 

(3.) In each case this process will give the year in which the 
Olympic year begins, i.e. 01. 70. 3. began July 498, ended 
July 497. 



GENEALOGIES. 

I. 

ARGIVE GENEALOGIES 
(Earlier). 

Inachus. 
PLoroneus. Aeglaleus (Sicyon). 



Apis. Niobe. 

I 

Argos=Evadne, daughter of Strymon 
1 (cp. Aesck SuppL 255). 

I | p ; 

Ecbasus. Peiras. Epidaurus. Criasus. 
Agenor. 
Argos (Panoptes). 



lasus. Io. 

19 



20 



GENEALOGIES. 



II. 

ARGIVB GENEALOGIES 
(Later}. 
Inaclms. (Grote, pt. i. c. 4.) 

lo (wanders to Egypt]. 

Epaplnis. 

I 
Libya. 

Belus. 



Aegyptus. 
Lynceus. 


Danaus. 
= Hypermnestra. 



Acrisius. 
Danae. 

Perseus. 
I 



Proetns (builds Tiryns). 
Megapenthes. 

(Perseus and Megapenthes exchange, 
Perseus builds Mycenae.) 



Electryon. Alcaeus. 

Alcmene = AtnpMtryon. 



(DaU of Troy.} 



Heracles. 
Hylhts. 



Sthenelus. 

Eurystheus (slain with his 
sons in Attica, cousin to 
Agamemnon}. 



I 



iUS. 



Aristomachus. 



Tememis. 
(Argos.) 


Aristodemus. 
(Sparta.) 


\ 
Cresphontes. 
(Messenia.) 


Eurystheus, 
(p. 22.) 




Procles. 
(p. 22.) 



THE PELOPIDS. 



III. 

PELOPIDS. (Grote, i. 7.) 

Oeuomaus. Tantalus. 

I 



Hippodameia = Pelops. Niobe. 



Atreus. Thyestes. Nicippe=*Sthenelus. 

i i i 

Aegisthus. Eurystheus (Trojan Wwr). 



Agamemnon. Menelaus. 

I [ 

Orestes = Hermione. 



Tisamenus Penthilus (expelled by the Dorian invaders, 
(slain by and retired to Lesbos.) 

Temenus). 

The rightful heirs to the throne of Argos were Heracles and 
his sons, who were exiles at Thebes, whither Amphitryon the 
father of Heracles had retired, after slaying his uncle Electryon. 
But they were set aside and kept from their right by Eurys 
theus. Hence the "Return" of the Heracleids was the 
recovery of an inheritance. 

The difficulty of bringing Atreas and the Pelopids to Argos 
(they belong to Pisa) was deeply felt by ancient authorities 
(see Thuc. i. 9). In Homer, Pelops is known as TrK^tmros 
(17. ii. 104), and gives to Atreus the sceptre which he has re 
ceived from Hermes. The peninsula is first called " the island 
of Pelops" in Tyrtaeus. 

B 



22 



GENEALOGIES. 



IV. 

KINGS OF LACEDAEMQN. 



AGIADS. 


EURYPONTIDS. 


(See Argive list.) YRS. B.C. 


YEARS. B.C. 


Eurysthenes, 


. 42 1103 


Procles, 


. 49 


1103 


Agis, 


. 2 1061 








Bchestratus, 


. 34 1059 


Sous, . 


. 


1054 


Labotas, . 


. 37 1025 


Eurypon, 


, 


? 


Doryssus, . 


. 29 988 


Prytanis, 


. 49 


978 


Agesilaus, . 


. 30 959 








Menelaus, . 


. 44 929 


Eunomus, . 


, 45 


929 






Polydectes, . 


. 




Archelaus, 


. 60 885 


Oharilaus, 


. 60 


884 






Lycurgus irpod., 


. 18 


884-867 


Teleclus, . 


. 40 825 


Nicander, 


. 39 


824 


Alcainenes, 


. 27 785 


Theopompus, 


. 47 


785 



[The first Olympiad 776 falls in the tenth year of Alcamenes and 
Theopompus, according to Apollodorus, "but if Theoponipus 
lived to the end of the first Messenian war (724 B.C.), this is 
hardly possible (Tyrtaeus, Fray. 5. Bergk).] 



Polydoras, 



7 58 
53 



Eurycrates, 





Anaxander ? 


. . 


Burycratidas, 


. 


Leon, . " 




Anaxandrides, 


c. 560 


Oleomenes, 


c. 520-488 


Leonidas, 


488-480 


Pleistarchus, 


480-458 



Anaxandrides. 

Zeuxidamus, 738 Archidamus. 
Anaxidamus, Anaxilaus. 
Arcbidamus I., Leoty chides I., 

c. 635. 
Hippocratides. 



Agasicles, 
Ariston, c. 560. 
Deiuaratus (deposed), 
LeotyeMdes, . 



c. 510-491 
2 491-469 



( Pausanias irpoS. 480-c. 468 
Pleistoanax 
banished, . 50 458-445 



Archidamus II., . 42 469-427 



SPARTAN KINGS. 



AGIADS. 


EURYPONTIDS. 


Nicomedes YES. B.C. 


YRS. 


B.C. 


Trpo'd.,. . 458- ? 






Pausanias, . 445-426 






Cleomenes 7rpo&, 445- ? 






Pleistoanax again, 426-408 


Agis I, 29 


427-399 


Pausanias again, 






banished, . 14 408-394 






Agesipolis, . 14 394-380 


Agesilaus, 41 


399-361 


Aristodernus7rpo'o\j 394- ? 






Cleombrotus, . 9 380-371 






Agesipolis II., 1 371-370 


Archidamus III., 23 


361-338 


Cleomenes II, 61 370-309 


Agis II., 9 


338-331 




Eudamidas I., 


330-[305] 


Areus I., . 44 309-265 






Acrotatus, . 265 


Archidamus IV., 


[305-209] 


Areus II., . 8 264-256 






Leonidas TrpoS., 264-256 






Leonidas II. (bammed), 256-243 







Cleombrotus (do.), 243-240 
Leonidas II. again, 240-236 
Cleomenes III. (221), 236-223 
Eucleidas, . 236-223 
Agesipolis, . 221 
Lyeurgus, . 221-210 
(Pelops, . 210-207) 



Agis III., 4 244-240 

Eurydamidas, 239-23 6 

(Archidamus V., Pretender). 



Machondas, 210-207 
Nabis, . 207-192 



NOTE ON THE LIST OP SPARTAN KINGS. 
If we deduct ten years for Alcamenes and Theopompus 
the first Olympiad falling in the tenth year of each we get 
317 years from the beginning of Alcamenes and Theopompus 
to the Trojan war (10 + 317 + 776= 1103). In this period we 
have nine names of Agiad kings (including Menelaus, who is 
omitted in most lists) and eight names of Eurypontids (exclud 
ing Lyeurgus). This allows an average of 35 and 39 years 
for a reign, which is from. 10 to 14 years too high, (See p. 55. 



24 GENEALOGIES. 



V. 

ARGIVB KINGS FROM THE RETURN TO PHEIDOJT. 

Temenns (See Argive list, p. 20). 

Oeisus. 

Medon. 

Thestius. 

Merops. 

Aristodamidas. 

Pheidon. 

The date of Pheidon is 748 B.C., in which year he celebrated 
the eighth Olympic festival Here, therefore, we have but 
seven names for the 355 years between 748 and 1103, i.e. an 
average of 50 years for a reign, or more than double the 
common length. 



MESSENIAN KINGS. 25 



VX 

LIST OF MESSENIAN KINGS, 

Cresphontes (see Argive list, p. 20). 

Aepytus. 

Glaucus. 

Isthmius. 

Dotadas. 

Sybotas. 

Phyntas. 

Anti.och.us (Messenia "becomes a, part of Sparta). 

This brings us from the Eoturn down to 743, the beginning 
of the first Messenian war (ace. to Pausanias) ; here, therefore, 
we have eight names for 360 years, which gives an average of 
45 years to each. 



26 



GENEALOGIES. 



VII. 

LIST OF KINGS OF CORINTH. 

These, like the Spartan and Argive and Messenian kings, 
claim to be descendants of Heracles (Duncker, Hist. Greece, 
bk. iii c. 3). 

Heracles. 

Antiochus. (Era of Trojan war.) 

Phylas. 
Hippothns. 

Aletes. (Return of the Heracleids.) 
Ixion. 

Agelas. 
Prymnis. 

Bacchis. 
Agelas CT- 
Eudemus. 



Agemon. 
Alexander. 



Aristomedes. 

I 

Telestes. 

Automenes. 



Telestes was slain 747 B.C. ; Automenes reigned but one year, 
when annual prytanies were established of the family of the 
Bacchiadae. Thus from Aletes to Telestes inclusive, we have 
nine generations (including Agelas II.) and eleven reigns 
(including Agemon and Alexander, who were collateral), to 
bring us from 747 to 1103, the date of the Return. This 
gives more than 39 years for a generation and more than 32 
years for a reign, both of which numbers are above the average. 



KINGS OF ATTICA. 27 

VIII 

KINGS OF ATTICA. 
A . ERECHTHEIDAB. 

Cecrops, 50 (years). 1606 JB.C 

Cranaus, 10. 
Ainphictyon, 40. 
Erichthonius, 10. 
Pandion L, 50. 
Erechtheus, 40. 
Cecrops II., 53. 
Pandion II., 43. 
Aegeus, 48. 

Theseus, 31. 
Menestheus, 23. (Fall of Troy.) 1209 B.C. 

B. THESEIDAE. ^ .._ 

6. NELEIDAE. 
Demophon, 36 years. 
Oxyntas, 14 | Melanthus, 37 years. 1149 B.C. 



Oodru*? 21 

' 



Apheidas, 1. Thymaetas, 9. 

D. MEDONTJDA B, 

Medon 3 20 (years). (The " Kings" were now 



Acastus, 39. caM ^ " ^^OTW. ') 

Archippus, 40. 

Thersippus, 14. 

Phorbas, 43. 

Megacles, 28. 

Diognetus, 28. 

Theraoles, 15. 

Ariphron, 30. 

Thespieus, 40. 

Agamestor, 26. 

Aeschylus, 23. (The second year of Aeschylus 

Alcgemon, 2. =776 B .c.) 



28 GENEALOGIES. 



In the second year of Alcmaeon (=752 B.C.), the life archons 
came to an end, and archons for ten years were established. 
Of these there were seven : 

Charops, 752 B.C. j Leocrates, 712 B.C. 



Aesimedes, 742 
Clidicus, 732 
Hippoxnenes, 722 ,, 



Apsander, 702 
Eryxias, 692 



NOTE ON THE ATTIC LIST. 

This list was perhaps compiled by Hellanicus, who in con 
structing it may have followed the dates preserved in the 
archives of Pisistratus and his sons, the lineal descendants of 
the Keleid kings. The total number of years from 752 B.C., 
when the Neleid family ceased to have the exclusive possession of 
the archonship, up to Melanthus, with whom the family begins, 
is 397 years, and the average allowed for the reigns and 
archons is not to be regarded as excessive, because we have 
nothing to prove that the archonship passed from father to 
son. But this interval of 397 years is repeated for the time 
which elapsed between the TROJAN WAR and CECROPS. In 
this period the old Attic tradition presented only six names, 
Gecrops, Erechtheus, Patidion, Aegeus, Theseus, and Menes- 
theus ; and when these six have been raised to eleven, as in 
the list given, we have an average of 36 years for a reign, which 
is about 13 years more than we can allow. 

The computation of Eratosthenes was different ; he placed 
Cecrops in 1556 B.C., the Fall of Troy in 1183, the date of 
Melanthus in 1127. Moreover, while the Attic list allows 60 
years between the destruction of Troy and the Eeturn of the 
Heracleids, Eratosthenes allowed 80, putting the date of the 
Return in 1103 B.C. In this, however, he contradicts the Attic 
list, even as he has arranged it. The date of Melanthus is put 
24 years before the return of the Heracleids, whereas it was the 
conquests of the Dorians in the Peloponnesus, which caused 
Melanthus and the Neleids of Pylus to seek refuge in Athens. 



CRETAN KINGS. 29 



IX. 

CRETAN KINGS. 
Europe. 

(Theseus.) Minos. Rhadamanthus. Sarpedon. 

Deucalion. 

I 
Idomeneus (Trojan war). 

In the Iliad, Sarpedon has no connection with Crete, and is 
not the son of Europe. 

The genealogy was invented after the Dorian colonisation 
of Crete, and is perhaps also intended to mark the connection 
between the Carians of Crete and the Carians of the mainland 
(through Sarpedon). 



30 GENEALOGIES. 

X. 

AKACIDS. 
Asopus. 1 

I | 

Zeus = Aegina. Thebe. 

Aeacus=(l) =(2) 

f "" j Phocus. 

Peleus = Thetis. Telainon. 

I I 

AchiUes. | I 

j Ajax. Teucer (by Heslone). 

Neoptolemus. | | 

| Philaeus. 2 Kings of Salamis. (Hdt. vii. 90.) 

Molossus. (Hence the Molosslan kings are Aeacids.) 

Peleus and Telamon, having slain their half brother Phocus, 
were compelled to leave Aegina. Peleus retired to Phthia ; 
Telamon to Salamis. This genealogy therefore connects 
Aegina, Phthia, Salamis, Cyprus, and the Molossians of 
Bpiras. Thebe and Aegina being sisters, the Thebans can 
apply to the Aeginetans as their next-of-kin (Hdt. v. 81, 
OL 68). For Aeacus and the Aeacidae, see Pind. Ol. viii. 41 ; 
JSTem, v. 15 ; 01. it 75 ff. ; Isthm. vii. 40 ; Isthm. v. 30 ff. ; 
IsTeni. iv. 50 ff. ; Ol. ix. 74. 

Grote, i. c. 10. 

1 There were two rivers named Asopus in Greece, one in Boeotia, 
the other near Sicyon. 

2 The Philaidae were an Attic gens. 



KINGS OF THEBES. 



KINGS OP THEBES. 
Cadmus. 
Polydorus. 
Labdacus. 

Laius. 
Oedipus. 



Eteocles. Polynices. 

Thersander (Trojan War). 
Tisamenus. 

Herodotus (v, 59) makes Laius contemporary with Amphi 
tryon, which would make Heracles contemporary with Oedipus, 
i.e. two generations before the Trojan war. (Similarly in 
ii 146, Heracles is 100 years before Pan, who is the son 
of Penelope.) But in ii. 145, Herodotus gives 1600 years 
before his own time as the date of Dionysus (i.e. 2050 B.C.) 
(according fco the Theban legend, Dionysus is the son of 
Semele, the daughter of Cadmus), and 900 years before his 
own time as the date of Heracles. According to the first reckon 
ing we have three generations =100 years between Cadmus and 
Heracles, according to the second we have 700 years between 
Heracles and the grandson of Cadmus 1 Perhaps we ought to 
read 1000 for 1600. 



GENEALOGIES. 



XII. 

THE 

Deucalion. 

f 
Hellen. 



I 

Aeolus. 


Doras. 




1 
Xuthus. 

1 




Ion. 




Achaeua 



Aegimms. 



I I I 

(Hyllus, son of Pamphylus. Dymas. 

Heracles.) 

This is merely a scheme for bringing all the Greeks Into 
relationship, and justifying the universal use of the word 
Hellenes. It could not therefore have been invented till the 
name Hellenes had become the name of all the Greeks. Dorus 
is sometimes said to be the father of Aegimius, but this 
relationship is doubtful. Aegimius adopted Hyllus, the son 
of Heracles, thus becoming the ancestor of the three Dorian 
tribes (Hylleis, Pamphyli, Dy manes), but the Hylleis alone 
are Heracleids. The Heracleid kings of Sparta claimed to be 
Achaeans (Hdt. v. 72). Cleomenes, when told by the priestess 
that no Dorian can enter the temple at Athens, replies 
GV Afoptevs elfjt.1 dXA 3 'A^aioy* 



KINGS OF MACEDONIA. 33 

XIII.A. 1 

KINGS OP MACEDONIA. 
(1. Caranus.) 
(2. Coenus.) 
(3. Thurimas.) 

4. Perdiccas I. 

5. Argaeus. 

6. Philippus I. 

7. Aeropus. 

8. Alcetas. YBAES. B.C. 

9. Amyntas I., ..... (540) 

10. Alexander I., (500) 

11. Perdiccas II., (454) 

12. Archelaus, . 14 413 
IS. Orestes and Aeropus, . . 5 399 

14. Pausanias, .... 1 394 

15. Amyntas II, ... 24 393 

16. Alexander IL, ... 2 369 
Ptolemaeus Alorites, . . 3 367 

17. Perdiccas III., ... 5 364 

18. Philippus II, ... 23 359 

19. Alexander III., ... 13 336 

20. Philippus III., Aridaeus, . 7 323 

21. Cassander, , ... 19 315 

22. Philippus IV., ... (1) 296 

23. Demetrius Poliorcetes, . 7 294 

24. Pyrrhus, ... 7 m. 287 

25. Lysimachus, . . 5 y. 6 m. 3 286 

(Anarchy.) 

26. Antigonus Gonatas, . .44 283 

27. Demetrius II, ... 10 239 

28. Antigonus Doson, . . 9 229 

29. Philippus V., ... 42 220 

30. Perseus, . . . .11 178 

i From Clinton's Fasti Helknfai. 



34 



GENEALOGIES. 



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oa "S .2^ 3 


W 




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r o i 




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<4 <^ 


PS ^J gvjj 


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r*5 PjS 


1 

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1 ri 
i. Ill 


i 1 

HH 
1 1 


58 

1 

3 

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1 


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rg pL, >f-J ^ ip j 


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SECOND ASSYRIAN EMPIRE. 35 

XIV. 

SECOND ASSYRIAN EMPIRE.' 

B.C. 

Shalmanesar IV., .... 780-770 

Assurdanil II., .... 770-752 

Assurnirari, ..... 752-745 

Tiglath-Pilesar II., . . . 745-726 

Shalmanesar V., . 726-721 

Sargon, 721-704 

Sennacherib, . 704-681 

Esarhaddon, 681-667 

AssurbanipaL, .... 667 ... 

Assuiidilani, . . . . . ... 625 

or, according to other accounts 

Assurbanipal, .... 667-625 

Assuridilani, 625-606 

See Duncker's History of Antiquity, iii. 291. 
Maspero, Histoire Ancienne, p. 476. 

1 According to Maspero, J3". A ., p. 391. 



36 GENEALOGIES. 



XV, 

KINGS QJ EGYPT. 

Ethiopian Kings. 

Sabnkon. 

! 

Seveclius, 

! 

Tirhaka. 
Urdamane. 

During this period Assyria gains the ascendency over Egypt ; 
in 663 B.C. Thebes is sacked by Esarhaddon, and a number of 
dynasts are, set up in the place of the Ethiopian monarchs. 
Among these were Necho and his son Psammetichus, who 
succeeded in recovering the independence of their country. 

Psammetichus I., . . . B.C. 664-610 

Necho, 610-595 

Psammetichus IL, .... 595-589 

Apries (Eophrah), .... 589-570 

AmasiSj 570-526 

Psammenitus, .... 526-525 
Conquest of Egypt by Cambyses in f>25 B.G, 



KINGS OF LYDIA. 37 





XVI. 




LYDIAH KINGS. 


22 


A. 
Heracleids=505 years. 

B. 

5 Mermnadae. 


Gyges, . 
i 
ArdySj 

Sadyattes, 
Alyattes, 


* B.C. 716 38 years. 
678 49 
629 12 
617 57 


Croesus, . 


560 14 



Destruction of Sardis, 546 B.C. 

The dates given by Eusebius do not agree with these dates 
of Herodotus. Of. Duncker, Hist. Ant. iii 170, 415, who 
arranges the reigns thus : 

Gyges, .,,,,, 689-653 
653-617 



"JS^"* 

Ardys, 



Sadyattes, . 617-612 

I 
Alyattes, , . , 612-563 

Croesus, .... * 563-549 

fixing the date of the capture of Sardis before the burning of 
the temple of Delphi in 548 B.C. 

C 



38 GENEALOGIES. 





XVII. 




KINGS OF MEDIA. 




B.C. 




Deioces, . 
Phraortes, 
Cyaxares, 


709 
656 
634 


53 years *) 
S=75 
22 ) 

40 } 


1 
Astyages, 


594 


35 ) 



Astyages was conquered by Cyrus in 559 B.C. 

The total length of the Median monarchy is thus 150 years, 
but though Herodotus gives us these numbers for the various 
reigns, he fixes the total length of the empire at 128 years 
(i 130). 

Aeschylus (Persae, 756 ff.) speaks of two Median kings 
only : 

Mijdos yap TJV 6 irp&ros f\yi*.ci>v crrparov* 
oXXo? 8* eKfivov noils roS' epyov rjvvaev. 

TpiTos 8' dor' avrov Kvpoy. 

And, in fact, the greatness of the Median empire appears to 
date from Cyaxares. 



SECOND BABYLONIAN EMPIRE. 



39 



Nabopolassar, 

Nebuchadnezzar, 

I 



XVTTI 
SECOND BABYLONIAN EMPIRE. 

625-605 
605-561 
561-559 
559-555 
555 (for 9 months) 



Evilmerodach, 

Neriglissar, * . 

Bel labar iskun (JLabaessoarach) 
Nabonetus, .... 
In 538 Cyrus captured Babylon. 



555-538 



See Duncker's History of Antiquity, iii. cc. 14, 15, 
Maspero, Histoire A ncienne, p. 520. 



GENEALOGIES. 



XIX. 

ATHENIAN FAMILIES. 

(1.) The Alcmaeonids. 

Megacles (archon in the time of the Cylonian affair) 

Cleisthenes Alcmaeon (friend of Croesus, Hdt. vi. 
(of Sicyon). | 

Agariste = Megacles, 
Cleisthenes of Athens. Eippocrates. 



Megacles. Megacles. 

j (Hat YL 131.) 

Dmomache==Clinias, Euryptolemus. Pericles, 
Alcibiades. Isodice=0imon. 



(2.) The Family of Militiades. 

Cypselus. 1 Stesagoras. 1 

I I 

MiMades* Cimon. 

i 



Stesagoras. Miltiades 

(married Hegesipyle). 

Cimon. 
; Cypselus and Stesagoras married the same woman, Hdt. 6. 88. 



ATHENIAN ARCHONS. 



XX. 



ATHENIAN ARCHONS. 


a.) 


For Ten Years. 




Cliarops, . 


01. 7. 1. 


752 RC. 


Aesimides, . 


01. 9. 3. 


742 


Clidicus, 


. 01. 12. 1. 


732 


Hippomenes, . 


01. 14. 3. 


722 


Leocrates, 


OL 17. 1. 


712 


Apsander, 


01. 19. 3. 


702 


Eryxias, . 


01. 22. 1. 


692 



(2.) For One Year. 



B.C. 


OL. 




B.C. 


OL. 




682. 


24.3. 


Creon. 


590. 


47. 3 . 


Simon. 


381. 


24.4. 


Tlesias. 


588. 


48.1. 


Philippus. 


671. 


27.2. 


Leostratus. 


585. 


48.4. 


Damasias I ? 


669. 


27.4. 


Peisistratus 


582. 


49.3. 


Damasias II. 


668. 


28.1. 


Autosthenes 


577. 


50.4. 


Archestratides, 


664. 


29.1. 


Miltiades. 


570. 


52.3. 


Aristomenes. 


659. 


30.2. 


Miltiades. 


566. 


53.3. 


Hippocleides. 


644. 


34.1. 


Dropides. 


360. 


55.1. 


Comias. 


639. 


35.2. 


Damasias. 


559. 


55.2. 


Hegestratus. 


621. 


39.4. 


Dracon. 


556. 


56.1. 


Euthydemus, 


615. 


41.2. 


HeniocMdes. 


548. 


58.1. 


Erxicleides. 


605. 


43.4. 


Ai Lstocles. 


536. 


61.1. 


naeus* 


604. 


44.1. 


Critias. 


533. 


61.4. 


Thericles. 


599. 


45.2. 


Megacles. 


524. 


64.1. 


Miltiades. 


595. 


46.2. 


Philombrotus. 


508. 


68.1. 


Isagoras. 


594. 


46.3. 


Solon. 


504. 


69.1. 


Acestorides. 


593. 


46.4. 


Dropides. 


500. 


70.1. 


Mynis. 


592. 


47.1. 


Eucrates. 


496. 


71.1. 


llipparchus. 



ATHENIAN ARCHONS. 



B.C. 


OL, 




B.C. 


OL. 




495. 


71.2. 


Philippus. 


462. 


79.3. 


Gonon. 


494. 


7L 3 . 


Pythocritus. 


461, 


79.4. 


Euthippus. 


493. 


7L 4 . 


Thernistocles. 


460. 


80.1. 


Phrasicleides. 


492. 


72.1, 


Diognetus. 


459. 


80.2. 


Philocles. 


491. 


72.2. 


Hybrilides. 


458. 


80.3. 


Bion. 


490. 


72. 3 . 


Phaenippus. 


457^ 


80.4. 


Mnesitheides. 


489. 


72.4. 


Aristeides. 


456. 


81.1, 


Callias. 


488. 


73.1. 


Anchises. 


455. 


81.2. 


Sosistratus. 


185. 


73.4. 


PMlocrates. 


454. 


81.3- 


Ariston. 


484. 


74.1. 


Leostratus. 


453. 


81.4. 


Lysicrates. 


483. 


74.2. 


Mcodemus. 


452. 


82.1. 


Chaerephanes. 


482. 


74.3. 


Theraistocles. 


451. 


82.2, 


Antidotus. 


480. 


75.1. 


Calliades. 


450. 


82. 3 . 


Enthyderaus. 


479. 


75.2. 


Xanthippus. 


449. 


82.4. 


Pedieus. 


478. 


75.3. 


Timosthenes. 


448. 


83.1. 


Philiscus. 


477. 


75.4. 


Adeimantus. 


447. 


83.2. 


Tiraarcliides. 


476. 


76.1. 


Phaedon. 


446. 


83.3. 


Callimaclms. 


475. 


76.2. 


Dromocleides. 


445. 


83.4. 


Lysimachides. 


474. 


76.3- 


Acestorides. 


444. 


84.1. 


Praxiteles. 


473. 


76.4. 


Menon. 


443. 


84.2. 


Lysanias. 


472. 


77.i. 


Chares. 


442. 


84.3. 


Diphilus. 


471. 


77.2. 


Praxiergus. 


441. 


84.4. 


Timocles. 


470. 


77.3. 


"Demotion. 


440. 


85.1. 


MorycMdes. 


469. 


77. 4 . 


Apsephion. 


439. 


85.2. 


Glaucinus. 


468. 


78.1. 


Theagenides. 


438. 


85. 3 . 


Theodoras. 


467. 


78.2. 


Lysistratus. 


437. 


85.4. 


Euthymenes. 


460. 


78.3. 


Lysanias. 


436. 


86,1. 


Lysimachus. 


465. 


78.4. 


Lysitheus. 


435. 


86.2. 


Antiochides. 


464. 


79.L 


Archidemides. 


434. 


86.3. 


Crates. 


463. 


79.2. 


Tlepolenms. 


433. 


86,4. 


Apseudes, 



A THENIAN ARCHONS. 



43 



B.C. 


OL. 




B.C. 


OL. 




4:32. 


87.1. 


Pythodorus. 


402. 


94.3. 


Micon. 


431. 


87,2. 


Euthydemus. 


401. 


94.4. 


Xenaenetus. 


430. 


87.3. 


Apollodorus. 


400. 


95.1. 


Laches. 


429. 


87.4- 


Epameinon. 


399. 


95.2. 


Aristocrates. 


428. 


88.1. 


DiotimiTS. 


398. 


95.3. 


Ithycles. 


427. 


88.2. 


Eucles. 


397. 


95.4. 


Suniades. 


426. 


88.3. 


Euthynus. 


396. 


96.1. 


Phonnion. 


425. 


88.4. 


Stratocles. 


395. 


96.2. 


Diophantus. 


424. 


89.1. 


Isarchus. 


394. 


96.3. 


Eubulides. 


423. 


89.2. 


Amynias. 


393. 


96.4. 


Demostratus. 


422. 


89.3. 


Alcaeus, 


392. 


97.1. 


Philocles. 


421. 


89.4. 


Aristion. 


391. 


97.2. 


Nicoteles. 


420. 


90.1. 


AstypMlus. 


390. 


97.3. 


Demostratus. 


419. 


90.2. 


Archias. 


389. 


97.4. 


Antipater. 


418. 90.3, 


Antiphon. 


388. 


98.1. 


Pyrgius. 


417. 90.4. 


Euphenms. 


387. 


98.2. 


Theodotus. 


416. 91.1. 


Arimnestus. 


386. 


98.3. 


Mystichides. 


415. 91.2. 


Chabrias. 


385. 


98.4. 


Dexitheus. 


414. 


91.3- 


Tisander. 


384. 


99.1. 


Diotrephes. 


413. 


91.4- 


Cleoeritus. 


383. 


99.2. 


Phanostratus. 


412. 


92.1. 


Callias. 


382. 


99.3. 


Evander. 


411. 


92.2. 


Theopompus. 


381. 


99.4. 


Demophilus. 


410. 


92.3. 


Grlaucippus. 


380. 


100. 1, 


Pytheas. 


409. 


92.4- 


Diocles. 


379. 


100.2. 


Nicon. 


408. 


93.1. 


Euctemon. 


378. 


100.3. 


Nausinicus. 


407. 


93.2. 


Antigenes. 


377. 


100.4. 


Calleas. 


406. 


93.3, 


Callias. 


376. 


101.1. 


Gharisander. 


405. 


93.4. 


Alexias. 


375. 


101.2. 


Hippodamas, 


404. 


94.1. 


Anarchia. 


374. 


101.3. 


Socratides. 


403. 


94.2. 


Eucleides. 


373. 


101.4, 


Asteius. 



44 



ATHENIAN ARCHONS. 





i 








B.C. 


OL. 




B.C. 


OL. 




372 


102,1. 


Alcisthenes. 


346. 


108.3. 


Archias. 


371. 


102.2. 


Phrasicleides 


345. 


108.4. 


Eubulus. 


370. 


102.3. 


Dysnicetus. 


344. 


109.1. 


Lyciscus. 


369. 


102.4. 


Lysistratus. 


343. 


109.2. 


Pythodotus. 


368. 


103.1. 


Nausigenes. 


342. 


109.3. 


Sosigenes. 


367. 


103.2. 


Polyzelus. 


341. 


109.4. 


Mcomachus. 


3C6. 


103.3. 


CepMsodorus. 


340. 


110.1. 


Theophrastus. 


365. 


103.4. 


Chion. 


339. 


110.2. 


Lysimacliides. 


364 


104i. 


Tim ocrates. 


338. 


110.3. 


Chaerondas. 


363. 


104.2. 


Charicleides. 


337. 


110.4. 


Phrynichus. 


362. 


104.3. 


Molon. 


336. 


111.1. 


Pythodelus. 


361. 


104.4. 


Nicophemus. 


335. 


111.2. 


Euaenetus. 


360. 


105.1. 


Kallimedes. 


334. 


111.3- 


Ctesicles. 


359. 


105.2. 


Eucharistus. 


333. 


111.4. 


Nico crates. 


358. 


105.3. 


CepMsodotus. 


332. 


112.1. 


Nicetes. 


357. 


105.4. 


Agathocles, 


331. 


112.2. 


Aristophanes. 


356. 


106.1. 


El pines. 


330. 


112.3. 


Aristophon. 


355. 


106.2. 


Callistratus. 


329. 


112.4. 


Cephisophon, 


354. 


106-3. 


Diotimus. 


328. 


113.1. 


Euthycritus. 


353. 


106.4. 


Thudemus. 


327. 


113.2. 


Hegemon. 


352. 


107.1. 


Aristodenrus. 


326. 


113.3. 


Chremes. 


351. 


107.2. 


Thessalus. 


325. 


113.4. 


Anticles. 


350. 


107.3. 


Apollodoras. 


324. 


114.1. 


Hegesias. 


349. 


107.4. 


Callimachus. 


323. 


114.2. 


Cephisodonis. 


348. 


108.1. 


Theophilus. 


322. 


114.3. 


Philocles. 


347. 


108.2. 


Themistocles. 


321. 


114.4. 


Archippus. 



Before 496 our knowledge of the Athenian Archons is very 
defective. From 496 to 321 we have a complete list, with the 
exception of 487, 486, and 481 B.C. 



OLYMPIAN VICTORS. 



45 



XXI. 

LIST OF VICTORS IN THE STADIUM or, FOOT-RACE 
AT OLYMPIA. 

We possess a list of tLe victors at Olympia from 776 B.C. 
to 221 A.D. It lias been copied by Eusebius from Julius 
Africanus, who flourished in Palestine in the reign of 
Elagabalus (218-222). Africanus, of course, copied from still 
earlier lists, adding to tnem the victors down to his own time. 

These lists appear to have been kept by the Hellenodikai, or 
umpires of the games (Paus. vi. 8, 1). They are often quoted 
by Pausanias as che records of the Eleans touching the 
Olympian victoxs ra 'HXeuoz/ es rovs 'OXu/Mnozn'/ea? ypd^ara 
(Paus. iii. 21, 1 ; v. 21, 9 ; vi. 2, 3, 13, 10,) who also informs 
us that the names had been preserved continuously from the 
time of Coroebus (v. 8, 4 ; 24, 5), and that they were written 
in the gymnasium at Olympia by a certain Paraballon (vi. 6, 3). 
The first to publish a list was Hippias of Elis, whose work is 
blamed for its inaccuracy by Plutarch, Num. init (Of, S. Julii 
Africani *O\vp7riddo>v avaypa<f)T) : ed. Hutgers.) 



OL. 


B.C. 




1. 


776. 


Coroebus, an Elean. 


2. 


772. 


Antimachus, an Elean. 


3. 


768. 


Androclus, a Messenian. 


4. 


764. 


Polychares, a Messenian. 


5. 


760. 


Aeschines, an Elean. 


6. 


756. 


Oebotas, a Dymean. 


7. 


752. 


Daicles, a Messenian. 


8. 


748. 


Anticles, a Messenian. 


9. 


744. 


Xenocles, a Messenian. 


10. 


740. 


Dotadas, a Messenian, 


11. 


736. 


Leochares, a Messenian. 



OLYMPIAN VICTORS. 



Oxythemis, a Cleonean. 
Diocles, a Corinthian. 
Desmon, a Corinthian. 

The diaulos was now added. 
Orsippus, a Megarian. 

The dolichus was added and the runners 
discontinued the girdle. 
Pythagoras, a Laconian. 
Polus, an Epidaurian. 
Tellis, a Sicyonian. 

The wrestling and the Pentathlon were added. 
Menus, a Megarian. 
Atheradas, a Laconian. 
Pantacles, an Athenian. 
Pantacles again. 
Icarius, a Hyperasian. 

The boxing was now added* 
Cleoptolenras, a Laconian. 
Thalpius, a Laconian. 

The four-horse race was added. 
CallistheneSj a Laconian. 
Eurybates, an Athenian. 
Charmis, a Laconian. 

This Olympiad was held by the Pisaeans f 
the Means being at war with Dyme. 
Chionis, a Laconian. 
Chionis again. 

The Pisaeans heid this Olympiad indepen 
dently, and the following twenty-two. 
Ohionis again. 



OL. 


1 

B.C. 


12. 


732. 


13. 


728. 


14. 


724. 


15. 


720. 


16. 


716. 


17. 


712. 


18. 


708. 


19. 


704. 


20. 


700. 


21. 


696. 


22. 


692. 


23. 


688. 


24. 


684. 


25. 


680. 


26. 


676. 


27, 


672. 


28. 


668. 


29. 


664. 


30. 


660. 


31. 


656. 



OLYMPIAN VICTORS. 



47 



OL. B.C. 

32. 652. Cratinus, a Megarian. 

33. 648. Gryges, a Laconian. 

The Pancratium was now added, and the 
horse race. 

34. 644. Stomas, an Athenian. 

35. 640. Sphaerus, a Laconian. 

36. 636. Arytamas, a Laconian. 

37. 632. Euryclidas, a Laconian. 

The foot race and ivrestling for boys added. 

38. 628. Olyntheus, a Laconian. 

The pentathlon for boys introduced, but it 
was not continued. 

39. 624. Khipsolaus, a Laconian. 

40. 620. Olyntheus, a Laconian again. 

41. 661. Cleondas, a Theban. 

Boxing for the boys added. 

42. 612. Lycotas, a Laconian. 

43. 608. Cleon, an Epidaurian. 

44. 604. G-elon, a Laconian. 

45. 600. Anticrates, an Epidaurian. 

46. 596. Chrysomachus, a Laconian. 

47. 592. Eurycles, a Laconian. 

48. 588. Glycon, a Crotoniate. 

49. 584. Lyeinus, a Crotoniate. 

50. 580. Epitelidas, a Lacouian. 

51. 576. Eratosthenes, a Crotoniate. 

52. 572. Agis, an Elean. 

53. 568. Hugnon, a Peparetliian. 

54. 564. Hippostratus, a Crotoniate. 

55. 560. Hippostratus again. 



OLYMPIAN VICTORS. 



OL. 

56. 

57. 
58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 



63. 

64. 
65. 

66. 

67. 
68. 
69. 
70. 

71. 

72. 
73, 



B.C. 

556. 
552. 
548. 
544. 
540. 
536. 
532. 



528. 
524. 
520. 

516. 
512. 
508. 
504. 
500. 

496. 
492. 

488. 



PhaedniSj a Pharsalian. 
LadromuSj a Laconlan. 
Diognetus, a Crotoniate. 
ArchiJochus, a Corcyrean. 
Apellaeus, an Elean. 
Agatharchus, a Corcyrean. 
Eryxias, a Chaleidian. 

A t this time Milo conquered in the wrestling. 
He was victor six times at the Olympia, six 
at the Pythia, ten at the Isthmia, and nine 
at the Nemea. 

dm on, the Athenian, was victorious in the 
chariot race. 
Parmenides, a Oamarinean. 

Pisistratm victorious in the chariot race. 
Menander, a Thessalian. 

Cimonwas again victorious in thechariotrace. 
Anochus, a Tarentine. 

The race in armour was added. 
Ischyrus, a Himeraean. 
Phanas, a Pellenaean. 
Isomachus, a Crotoniate. 
Isomachus again. 
Niceas, an Opuntian. 

The mule race added, 
Tislcrates, a Crotoniate, 
Tisicrates again. 
Aslytus, a Crotoniate. 

Gdon victorious in the chariot race. Hiero 
victorious in the horse race. 



OLYMPIAN VICTORS. 



49 



OL. 

74. 
75. 
76. 

77. 

78. 

79. 
80. 



81. 

82. 



83. 

84. 

85. 
86. 
87. 
88. 
89. 
90. 
91. 

92. 
93. 

94. 



B.C. 

484. 
480. 
476. 

472. 

468. 

464. 
460. 



456. 
452. 



4*48. 
444. 

440. 
436. 
432. 
428. 
424. 
420. 
416. 

412. 
408. 

404. 



Aslytus again. 
Aslytus again. 
Scainandrius, a Mytilenean. 
Dandes, an Argive. 

Hiero victorious in the horse race. 
Parmenides, a Poseidoniate. 

Hiero victorious in the chariot race. 
Xenophon, a Corinthian. 
Torymmas, a Thessalian. 

Arcesilaus of Gyrene victorious in the chariot 
race. 

PolynmestuSj a Cyrenean. 
Lycus, a Larisaean. 

Psaumis of Camarina was victorious with 
the mules. 

Orison, a Himeraean, 
Orison again. 

The mule race is discontinued,. 
Orison again. 
Theopompus, a Thessalian. 
Sophron, an Anibraciote. 
Symmachus, a Messenian. 
Symmachus again. 
Hyperbius, a Syracusan. 
Exaenetus, an Agrigentine. 

Alcibiades is victorious with the chariot race. 
Exaenetus again. 
Eubotas, a Cyrenean. 

The race with the pair of horses added. 
CrocinaSj a 



OLYMPIAN VICTORS. 



OL. 

95, 
96. 

97. 
98. 
99. 

100. 
101. 

102. 
103. 
104. 

105. 
106. 
107. 
108. 
109. 
110. 
111. 
112. 
113. 
114. 
115. 



B.C. 

400. 
396. 

392. 
388. 
384. 

386. 
376. 
372. 
368. 
364. 

360. 
356. 
352. 
348. 
344. 
340. 
336. 
332. 
328. 
324. 
320. 



Minos, an Athenian. 
Eupolemus, an Elean. 

The contests for trumpeters and heralds added. 
Terinaeus, an Elean. 
Sosippus, a Delphian. 
Dicon, a Syracusan. 

The chariot race for young horses added. 
Dionysodorus, a Tarentine. 
Damon, a ThuriaB. 
Damon again. 
Pythostratns, an Ephesian. 
Phocides, an Athenian. 

This Olympiad was held by the Pisaeans. 
Poras, a Cyrenean. 
Poms again. 
Micrinas, a Tarentine. 
Polycles, a Cyrenean. 
Aristolochus, an Athenian. 
Anticles, an Athenian. 
Cleomantis, a Cleitoriaii, 
G-ryllus, a Chalcidian. 
Cliton, a Macedonian. 
Micinas, a Ehodian. 
Damasias, an Amphipolitan. 



PART II 
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES. 

I. 

FROM THE TROJAN WAR TO THE FIRST OLYMPIAD. 



B.C. 
1183. 
1133. 



1123. 



1103. 



1074. 



1066. 



FALL OF TROY (see note). 

The Thessalians, issuing from Thesprotia, invade Thes- 
saly. (Duncker, Hist, of Greece, bk. ii. c. 1 ; Curtius, 
i. 155 ; Grote, pt. i. c. 18. sect. 2 ; Hdt. vii. 176.) 

The Boeotians are driven from Thessaly into Boeotia 
(Cadmeis). (Thuc. i. 12.) 

The Dorians invade the Peloponnese. Temenus, Aris- 
todemus, Oresphontes. (Grote, i. c. 18, sect. 1. 
Thuc. i. 12.) 

About this time the Dorians In the Peloponnesus obtain 
possession of Corinth, Sicyon, Troezen, Epidaums 
and Aegina. The old population is either expelled 
or amalgamated. (Curtius, i. p. 171 ; Grote, i 
18, sect. 1.) 

Thera colonised. (Hdt. iv. 146-149 ; Duncktr, bk. ii. 
c. 11 ; Grote, i. 18, sect. 3, 3.) 

Megara passes into the hands of the Dorians (Hdt. v. 
76), who also colonise Melos (Thuc. v. 112), Cnidus, 
Halicarnasstts from Troezen (Hdt. vii. 99), Rhodes 
and a large part of Crete (Duncker, bk. ii., cc. 7, 

11). 

At Athens, about this time, Codrus is slain in battle 
against the Dorians. The monarchy comes to an 
end, and life archons are established. (Grote, i. 18, 
sect. 2 ; Duncker, bk. ii. c. 3.) 
D 



54 [1054-884.] 



B.C. 

1054. 



1044. 



950. 



884, 



Foundation of the Aeolian colonies in Asia Minor 
Lesbos, 1053 ; Cyme, 1033 ; Smyrna, 1015 (Grote, i. 
18). These dates are traditional ; Jerome puts Cyme 
1048 B c. ? and Smyrna 1046 B.C. They are pro 
bably from 50 to 100 years too early (Duncker, 
bk. ii. c. 2). 

The sons of Codrus lead out colonies into Asia Minor. 
(These colonies also are too early at this date. 
Duncker, bk. ii. c. 4, puts them after the Aeolian 
i.e. Achaean colonies, about 950 B.C.) 

Labotas, king of Sparta ; tnis is the earliest date for 
Lycurgus. 

Possible date of the Homeric poems. 

(The date cannot be fixed precisely, for there are older 
and later elements in the poems. Herodotus puts 
Homer and Hesiod 400 years before his own time, 
and no more. This would give 850 B.C. From the 
limited knowledge of geography in Homer, the 
poems must have been composed before the voyage 
of the Milesians into the Black Sea, about 800 B.C. 
On the other hand, the Dorians were in Crete 
when the poems were composed (Idomeneus), and 
this gives an upward limit of 900 B.c, for the 
Dorians were not in Crete till after their occupation 
of the Peloponnese. The Odyssey must be before 
750 B.C., the date at which Sicily and the west 
became known to the Greeks, but subsequent to 
the Iliad, from which it has borrowed the legend 
of Idomeneus and the Cretans (Od. xix. 170 ff.). 
The catalogue is later, about 650 B.C. (Cf, Duncker, 
bk. ii. c. 12.) 

(Jharilaus, king of Sparta, later date of Lycorgus. 

Ilesiodic poetry. 



DATE OF THE TROJAN WAR. 55 



NOTE ON THE DATE OF THE TROJAN 

The date given in the table is that of Eratosthenes, who 
allows 860 years between the taking of Troy and the death of 
Alexander the Great; 860 + 323 = 1183 B.C. (Clemens Alex., 
Strom, i. 21, sec. 138). Eratosthenes founded his computation 
on the list of the Spartan kings (Plutarch, Lycurg. i.) in which 
the first Olympiad was placed in the tenth year of Alcaruenes 
and Theopompus. Before Alcamenes we have nine names of 
A<riad kings, counting Eurysthenes and including Menelaus ; 
before Theopompus we have eight names of Eurypontids, 
excluding the regency of Lycurgus. The interval between the 
first Olympiad and the return of the Heracleids in this list is 
327 years, and if from this we deduct 10 years for the reigns of 
Alcamenes and Theopompus, we have 317 years for the nine 
Agiads and the eight Eurypontids. This gives an average of 
much more than thirty years for each reign ; in fact, for the 
Eurypontids the average is nearly 40 years. Such an average 
would be excessive even for generations, and is very doubtful 
for reigns. From the Conquest to the present time we have 
thirty-five sovereigns in English history (excluding the eleven 
years of the Commonwealth) in 800 years, which gives an 
average of a little less than 23 years for a reign, a length which 
is almost identical with the average which Herodotus gives 
(i. 7) for the Lydian kings of the Heracleid dynasty (505 years 
for 22 "generations "=23 years for each, nearly). Even since 
the accession of George L, notwithstanding the long reigns of 
George III. and Victoria, the average length of a reign has 
been only twenty-four years, and it is not likely that this 
length would be exceeded in a time of disturbance, when the 
kings were leaders of their armies. 

For this reason it is probable that the date of the Trojan war 
was placed too high by Eratosthenes. If we assume eight 
reigns at Sparta before the first Olympiad, and allow 25 years 
for a reign, we reach the total of 20Q years for the interval 



56 DATE OF THE TROJAN WAR. 

between 776 B.C. and the return of the Heracleids. This will 
put the Return, or in other words, the establishment of the 
Dorians hi the Peloponnese, at 1000 B.C. in round numbers, so 
that the fall of Troy, which on the computation of Eratos 
thenes preceded the Return by 80 years, will be put at 1080 B.C. 

Other dates are given by Isocrates, Ephorus, and Democritus, 
which range from 33 to 63 years later than 1183 (Clinton, 
Fasti liellenici, ii. 5). Phanias of Eresus put the date 55 
years later ; Gallimacbus, 56 years later, allowing only 13 
Olympiads between Iphitus and Coroebus, and not, as Era 
tosthenes, 27 Olympiads ( = 108 years). 

On the other hand, the date given in the " Parian Marble" 
for the fall of Troy is 26 years above that of Eratosthenes 
1209 B.C. In the marble also, which seems to preserve a com 
putation founded on the lists of the Attic kings, the interval 
between the fall of Troy and the Keturn of the Heracleids is 
not 80 3 but 60 years. 

Herodotus does not fix the era of the fall of Troy, but we 
can fix it from dates which he supplies. In ii. 145 he tells 
us that Pan, who was supposed to be the son of Penelope and 
Hermes, lived after the Trojan war, and about 800 years before 
his own time. If we suppose Herodotus to have been 30 in 
454 B.C., 454 + 800 (=*1254) is a date somewhat later than the 
Trojan war. This date seems to be founded on Lydian annals.. 
The Heracleid dynasty of Sardis fell in 716 B.C, ; it lasted 505 
years, and the founder was fifth in descent from Heracles 
(4 generations = 133 years). But 716 -f 505 -I- 133 = 1354 as the 
date of Heracles, who is 100 years before Pan (Hdt. i. 7). On 
the other hand the Lacedaemonian lists quoted by Herodotus 
(vii. 204), which give 20 generations from the Return to 
Leonidas, do not agree with this date (Leonidas fell 480 B.C. 
and 20 generations =666 years; 480 + 666 = 1146 as the date 
of the Return). 

The Dorian invasion of Peloponnesus is a distinct historical 
fact, which brought about a change in the reigning families of 
the cities which they occupied. When, therefore, we find 



DATE OF THE TROJAN WAR. 57 

eight generations, more or less, in Sparta, Arcadia, and Corinth, 
for the interval between the first Olympiad and the Dorian 
occupation of the cities, we may fairly assume that some great 
political change took place in Peloponnesus about the year 
1000 B.C. This calculation makes it necessaiy to bring down 
the traditional dates for the colonisation of the islands of the 
Aegean and of Asia Minor by about a century. For it was In 
consequence of the "disturban ce caused by the Dorians that the 
Achaean (Aeolian) and Ionian colonists left the shores of 
Greece ; and the Dorians did not begin to colonj.se the islands 
till they were themselves established in the Peloponnesus. 

NOTE ON THE DATE OF LYCURGUS. 

Thucydides considers that 400 yeirs and more elapsed be 
tween the time that the Lacedaemonians enjoyed good govern 
ment and the end of the Peloponnesian wax. This, if we 
suppose that the reference Is to the constitution of Lycurgus, 
from which Herodotus dates the prosperity of the Lacedae 
monians, would give a date of about 805 for Lycurgns. With, 
this agrees the legend which connects Lycurgus with Iphitus 
and the renewal of the Olympic games in the 13th Olympiad 
before *776 B.C., i.e. in 828 B.C. 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES. 

II. 

FROM 776 TO 323 B O. 



776. 



770. 



765. 



761. 



l.i. 



2-3- 



4.4. 



Victory of Coroefous in the Olympic games. 
Arctinus the JSpic poet. 

The year of the beginning of the Peloponnesian war is 
hxed by the eclipse of the sun in 431 B.C. (Time. ii. 
28), ami Eratosthenes (in Clemens Alex., Strom, i. 
p. 336) gives 345 years from, the first year in. Ol. 1. 
to the Peloponnesian war (345 + 431=776 for the 
year in which Ol. 1. x. began). The first Olympiad 
took place in the second year of Aeschylus, life- 
archon at Athens, and in the tenth, year of Alca- 
menes and Theopompus, kings of Sparta. 

Arctinus of Miletus is placed at this date (or one year 
later) on the authw*ity of Musebius. fe wees the 
reputed author of the " Aethiopis " in four books, 
and the 'I\tov T^pcrcs in two books (Kinkel, Epic. 
Graec. Frag., pp. 33 f., 49 ff.). 

Sinope founded by Miletus. 

It was foiuided before the invasion of the Cimmerians 
in 750 B.C., and refounded after being destroyed in 
632 B.C. (Duncker, Hist. Ant. i. 545). 

Oinaethon of Lacedaemon. (33$>ic poet.} 
He was the author of the " Telegonia " and a poem on 
Oedipus. His works were extant in the t^me of 
JPausanias (second cent. A.IX) who speaks of them 
as genealogies, JPmis. ii. 3. 7 : TLivatdwv 6 Aare5cu- 
fjt,6vLos t lyeveaXbyvjcre y&p Kal oS-ros ^TTGO-L. ib. iv. 2, 
1 : 6ir6<ra K.tvaL6cav tyeveaXoytjcre. (Cp. Kinkel, 
Epic. Graec. JFrag.^ p. 196.) 

Eumelus, (JEpic poet.} 

He was a member of the Bacchiadae of Corinth. He is 
quoted by Pausamas on the antiquities of Corinth 
ii 1 1. ; ii. 3. 8. (Cp. Kinkel, Mpic. Graec. Frag., 
pp. 185-195). 

Asine conquered by the Argives. (Paus. iv. 34. 9.) 



6o 



[757-743.] 



B.C. 

757. 



756. 
753. 



752. 



749. 



748. 



5.4- 



6.1. 



6.4 



7.4. 



8.1. 



745. 



745-) 
726. 
743. 



8.4. 



9.2. 



Trapezus founded by Sin ope. 

That Trapezus was a colony of Sinope we know from 
Xen. Anab. iv. 8. 22, etc. Other colonies of this 
city were Cotyora and Cerasus. Sinope was her 
self a colony of Miletus (Xen. Anab. v. 9. 15). 

Cyzicus founded by Miletus. (Strabo, p. 635.) 

Cy2icuswassubseqiientlyrecolonisedbyMegara(675B.c.) 

Antfmachus of Teas. 

He was an epic poet. ( Kinkel, Ep. Graec. Frag. , p 247. ) 

[This is the Varroman date for the foundation of 
Eome.] 

Decennial Archons at Athens. 

Alcmaeon the last life-arch on was deposed after a rale 
of two years. (Op. Genealogies VIII., p. 27.) 

This is the period of the greatest power of the 
Milesians, who are said to have founded no fewer 
than 80 colonies. (Curt. Hist. Greece, i. 422. 
Strabo, p. 635 : TroXXA 5 TT)$ 7r6Xew pya ratf-nys, 
d rb irXijQos r&v d-Trot/aw*'. 8 re y&p 
TrbvTQs virb TOTUT&V avvyKiffrat. Tras Kal i) 
ls KCU $XXoi TrXe/ous rbiroi.} 

Pneidon, Mug of Arg-os, with the Pisatans, drives 
out the Eleans and celebrates the Olympic 
festival in this year. (Paus. vi. 22. 2.) 

Others put Pheidon three generations higher, making 
him a contemporary of Iphitus and Lycurgus. 
Others again bring him much lower (668 B.C., 
Curtius) on the strength of Hdt. vi. 127, where 
Leocedes, the son of Pheidon, is one of the suitors 
for Agariste, the daughter of Cleisthenes of Sicyon. 
(For Pheidon see Hdt. and Paus. //. cc. ; Pint. 
Amator. Narr. 2.) 

He was the first to introduce a system of coinage, 
weights and measures into Greece (the so- 
called Aeginetan standard). 

Automenes, king of Corinth, is deposed, and 
annual prytaneis are set up in his place 
(Paus. ii. 4. 4.) 

Tiglath-Pilesar II. is king of Assyria. 

Alcamenes and Theopompus, kings of Sparta; 
outbreak of the first Messenian War which 
lasted twenty years. (Pans. iv. 5. 4.) J735- 
716, Duncker, Hist. Gbreece, bk. iii. c. 4.J 



[743-716.] 



6i 



B.C. 


OL 




743. 


0.2. 


Rhegium founded by Chalcis. 






(The foundation took place in the Messenian War, for 






Strabo^p. 257, quotes Antioclms to the effect that 






Messenian exiles joined in it, and Messenians were 






leaders (^ye/^es) of Rhegium down to the time of 






Anaxilaus.) 


735. 


11.2. 


Naxos founded by Chalcis. 






(Time. vi. 3. Strabo, p. 267. Theocles the founder 






was an Athenian.) 


734. 


11-3- 


Syracuse founded by Archias of Corinth. (Strab, 






269.) He was exiled owing to the death of 






Actaeon. (Plut. Amator. Narr. 2.) 






Zancle (Messene) founded by Cyme. (Thuc. vi. 4.) 




11.4- 


Corcyra colonised by the Corinthians, under 






Chersicrates, who expelled the Liburnians 






(Strabo, 269.) 


729. 


12. 4 . 


Leontini and Catana founded by Naxos. 






(Thuc. vi. 3 ; Strabo, 272.) 


72S. 


13.1. 


Hyblaean Megara founded by Megara. 
(Thuc. vi. 4. The Megarians had lived here 245 years 






before the city was captured by Gel on in -483 B.C. 






Phi/olaus, a BaccMade of Corinth, gives laws to tJie 






Thebans. (Arist. PoL ii. 12.) 


726-) 
721.f 




Shalmanesar V., king of Assyria. 


724. 


14.1. 


Messenia conquered by the Spartans in the 






twentieth year of the war. 






(Paus iv. 13. 5, and for the length of the war, Tyrtaeus 






frag. 5, Bergk. ) 


7210 
704. f 




Sargon, king of Assyria. 


721. 


14. 4 . 


Sybaris founded by the Achaeaus of Pelopon 






nesus. 






{Strabo, 263. Isus of Helice was the leader. Diodorus, 






xii. 9. Scynmus, 337 ff.) 






About this time (Candaules being king of Lydia) 






the Cimmerians invaded A^ia Minor. 


720. 


15.1. 


Orsippus of Megara, 






He was the first who ran at Olyrapia without a girdle. 






Rise of Megara into power. (C. I. G. 1050. 






Hicks, "Manual," No. I.) 


716. 


16.1. 


Date of Gyges king of Lydia, according to 



[715-690.] 



B.C. 



715. 



OL. 



16.2. 



710. 

7090 
656. j 

708. 
705. 



17. 3 . 

17. 4 . 
18 i. 

18.4. 



704- 
681. / 
700. ! 20.i. 



695. 



690. 



21.2. 



22.3. 



Herodotus. tfcs Genealogies XVI. p. 37. The 
date given by Assyrian documents is later. 

Abydus founded by Miletus. 

(In the reign of Gyges, Strabo, 590.) 

About this time we may2>lQ>ce Cal Units the Elegiac poet, 
who referred to the Magnesians before their over 
throw by the Cimmerians (in the reign of Candaules 
of Lydia, Pliny, //. N. 35. 8.), and the conquest 
of JSardis by the Cimmerians. 

Croton founded by the Achaeans. 
They were led by Myscelus. (Dionys. Hal. Ant. ii. 
p. 361 ; Strabo, p. 262 ) 

Deioces, king of Media, according to Herodotus. 

Parium founded by the Milesians, Erythraeans, 
and Parians. (Strabo, 588.) 

Tarenttim founded by the Parthenii from Sparta. 
(Strabo, 278 ) 

About this time the Corinthians built triremes 
(Thuc. i. 13). Ameinocles at Samos. 

Tfcasos colonised by the Parians. (Telesicles and 
Ms son Archilochus take part in the colony.) 
(Strabo, 487 ; Pans. x. 28. 3.) This is placed 
in 720 B.C. by Curtius (after Dionysius). 

Sennacherib, king of Assyria. 

About this time may be placed the poets 
Archilochus of Paros, (iambic), 
Simonides of Amorgus, (iambic), 
Archilochus was later than Callinus, but lived in the 

reign of Oyges (Hdt i. 12). He joined in the 

colony at Thasos, and became famous after the 

20A Olympiad (Clemens, Strom, i. p. 333). 
Simonides is placed by Suidas 490 years after the 

Trojan war 693 B.C. 
Perdiccas L, king of Macedonia. 
Midas of Kirygia takes his life owing to the 

invasion of Phrygia by the Cimmerians 

(Eusebius). 

Gela founded by Rhod es and Crete. (Thuc. vi. 4.) 
Phaselis in Lycia founded by the Dorians. 

(Hdt. ii. 178.) 



[687-670.] 



B.C. 

687. 



685. 



CS3. 



6810 
667.5 
678-1 
629. J 
676. 



675. 
673. 

672. 

671. 

670. 



23 4 



24.2. 



25. 3 . 
26.1. 



26.2. 
26.4. 

27.1. 

27.2. 

27.3. 



Herodotus in Ms total sum (as opposed to the 
length of the separate reigns) puts the 
beginning of the Median Empire at this date 
(i. 130), 128 years before the fall, i.e. before 
559 B.C. 

Rebellion of the MessenSans under Aristomenes. 

Second Messenian War. (Pans. iv. 15. 1.) 

The date is probably too high. Tyrtaeus, who lived 
during the Second War, speaks of the first as 
"waged by the fathers of our fathers," and Justin 
allows 80 years between the two wars. Nor is the 
length of the war certain. (645-628 B.C., Curtius ; 
645-631, Duncker.) 

Nine yearly archons at Athens in place of one 
decennial arch on. 

Tyrtaeus came from Athens to Sparta in the 
Second Messenian War, and was admitted a 
citizen of Sparta. He was their general in 
the War. Sis poems were greatly prized at 
Sparta, and used in education. 

Esarhaddon, king of Assyria. 
Ardys, king of Lydia. (Hdt. i. 16.) 

The Carnean festival at Sparta founded with 
musical contests, at which Terpander was 
victorious. (Athenaeus, xiv. 635.) 

The festival occupied nine days in August. 

Chalcedon founded by Megara. (Time. iv. 75.) 

Cyzicus recolonised by Megara. 

Locri in Italy, founded by the Locrians. 

This is the date given by Eusebius. Others put it 
earlier, soon after Croton, 710 ; Strabo, 259. 

Pantaleon, king of the Pisa tans (see 644 B.C.), 
who are now independent of the Eleans. 

Alcman, the lyric poet, lived at Sparta aboiit this 
time. (Bergk, Poet. Lyr. G-raec., vol. iii. p. 
14ff) 

Orthagoras becomes tyrant of Sicyon, 

(His son Myron gained a victory at Olympia in 01. 33, 
648 B.C., Pans. vi. 19. 2, which brings us to this 
date, or a little earlier for Orthagoras. Grote, 
pt. ii., c. 9.) 



[669-648.] 



B.C. 

(569. 



668. 

667. 
665 



664. 
660. 

657. 



656. 
655. 



654. 



650. 



648. 



OL. 

27.4. 



28.1. 
284 
20.1. 
30 i. 

30,4. 

31.2. 
31.2. 

31.3. 

32.3. 
33.1. 



Defeat of the Spartans by the Argives at Hysiae 

(Pans. ii. 24. 8.) 
By this victoiy the Ai gives secured possession of 

Cynuria, and maintained it till about 01. 5(>. 
Capture of Eira and end of tne Second Messenian 

War. 

Assurbanipal (Sardanapalus), king of Assyria. 
Gymnopaedia established at Sparta. 
Thaletas the Cretan, who composed songs for the 

Spartans, may be placed at this date. 
Acrae founded by Syracuse. (Thuc. vi. 5.) 
Sea fight between the Corinthians and the Corcyraeans. 

(Thuc. i 13.) 

Selymbria founded by Megara (Scymnus, 719). 
Zaleucus gives laws to the Locrians, which are 

the oldest written laws known in Greece. 
Foundation of Byzantium by the Megarians. 
Lesches of Lesbos, an Epic poet, author of the " Little 

Iliad." (Kinkel, Frag. Epic. Graec. 36 ff.) 
Phraortes (656-634) ascends the throne of Media. 
Cypselus, with the help of the demos, expels the 

oligarchy of the Bacehiadae from Corinth, 

and establishes himself as tyrant. (Arist. 

Pol v. 9. 22.) 
Acanthus and Stagira in Chalcidice, colonies 

founded by Andros. (Strabo, 7. fr. 31.) 
Abdera founded by Clazomenae, but the colony 

was expelled by the Thracians. (Hdt. i. 168.) 
Istros, LampsacuSj and Borysthenes, founded by 

Miletus. (Strabo, 319, 589, 305.) 
Psammeticlms L, king of Egypt. 
About this time he succeeded in establishing himself 

with the aid of Greek and Oarian mercenaries. 

Previously, he had been a vassal-king of the 

Assyrians. 

Himera founded by Zancle. (Strabo, 272.) 
P/sander the Mpic poet, author of a poem on the 

labours of Heracles (Suidas). He was a 

native of Oamirus in Rhodes (Kinkel, Frag. 

Epic. Graec., 248). 
In this Olympiad Myron of Sicyon was victor in the 

chariot race. (Paus, vi. 19. 2.) 



[644-623.] 



644. 



640. 

635. 
634. 

632. 



33.1. 

36.2. 
36.3. 

37.1. 



631. 



630. 



G29-) 

(317 f 
628. 



625. 



37.2. 
37.3. 

38. i. 

38.4. 



Casmenae founded by Syracuse. (Thuc. vi. 5.) 

The Pisatans celebrate the Olympic games under 
Pantaleon their king. (According to Africanus, 
the Pisatans, together with the Eleans, celebrated 
the Olympiads irom 01. 27 to 01. 52.' But in 01. 
8 and 34 they apparently refused the Eleans any 
share. Cp. B.C. 748, 364.) 

About this time we must place Charondas the 
lawgiver of Catana. (Diodorus, xii. 14, gives a 
false account of his laws, as adapted to ThuriL) 

The Cimmerians take Sardis a second time. 
(Hdt. i. 15.) 

Cyaxares (634- 594) succeeds Phraortes in Media. 
(Hdt. i. 102.) 

The Scythians invade Asia. 

Cylon attempts to establish himself as tyrant at 
Athens. (Thuc. i. 126.) 

Cylon "a victory at Olympia is placed by Africanus at 
01. 35, 640 B.C The date of the attempt is 
uncertain ; it took place before Draco, and before 
Epimenides came to Athens AJegacles was archou 
at the time (Pint. Sol. c. 12). It also took place 
in an Olympian year, and ii this year is not 
accepted, 628 or 624 must "be the date. 

Gyrene founded by Battus of Thera (631-591). 
(Hdt. iv. 154.) 

Naucratis founded by Miletus in Egypt. (Strabo, 
p. 801.) 

Mimnermus of Oo/ophon, the Elegiac poet. 
(Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Grace., ii. 25 ff.) 

Sadyattes, king of Lydia. (Hdt. i. 16). 

Selinus founded by Hyblaean Meara. 

(Thuc. vi. 4, a hundred years aiter the foundation of 

Megara, 728 B. c. ) 

Periander succeeds Cypselus at Corinth. 
Theagenes, tyrant of Megara, father-in-law of 

Cylon of Athens. (Arist. Pol. v. 4, 5 ; Thuc. 

i. 126.) 
Corinth and Corcyra found Epidamnus, Am- 

bmcia, Anactorium, Leucas, and Apollonia. 
Periander married Melissa the daughter of 

Procles, tyrant of Epidaurus (Hdt. iii. 50), 

who must therefore be placed about this time. 



66 



[621-599.] 



B.C. 

625. 



623. 
621. 

617. 
615. 



612. 
611. 

610. 
606. 



OL. 

884. 



39.2. 
39.4. 

404. 



42.1. 
42.2. 

42. 3 . 
43. 3 . 



600. 45.1. 
599. ' 45.2. 



Anon of Methymna in Lesbos, the lyric poet, is a 

contemporary of Periander. He introduced 

the "Cyclic Choruses." (Hdt. i. 23; Bergk, 

Poet. Lyr. Gfraec., iii. 79.) 
At this time Babylon became independent of 

Assyria under Nabopolassar (625-605). 
War between Miletus and Sadyattes of Lydia. 

(Hdt. i. 17, 18.) 

Laws of Draco. (Clem. AL, Strom. L p. 309.) 
These laws were noted for their severity, death being 

nearly alwajs the penalty imposed. (Arist. Pol. 

ii. 12.) Of. Athen. Pol.c. iv. 
Alyattes (617-560) succeeds Sadyattes as king 

of Lydia. (Hdt. i. 25.) 
Necho succeeds Psaminetichus I. in Egypt. 

(Hdt. ii. 157-161.) 
War between Lydia and Media. It lasted five 

years, and came to aa end owing to an eclipse 

in 610 B.C. (Hdt. i. 74.) (But others pre 

fer the eclipse of 585 B.C.) 

Peace between Lydia and Miletus, Tttrasybulus 

tyrant of Miletus. 
Pittacus overthrows the tyranny of Melanchrus 

in Mitylene with the help of the brothers of 

Alcaeus. 

A/caeus of Mitylene. (Hdt. v. 94.) 
Sappho and Erinna of Lesbos. (Bergk, Poet. 

Lyr. iii. 82.) 
Stesichorus of Himera in Sicily, author of a 

poem on JHelen. 

Fall of Ninevela, which is taken by Cyaxares. 
The fall of Nineveh should probably be placed earlier, 

iu 625 B.C., the dominion of the Scythians lasting 

but seven or eight years. (Maspero, Histoire de 

I' Orient, p. 476.) 

Massilia founded by Phocaea. 

Camarma founded by Syracuse. (Thuc. vi. 5, 135 

years after Syracuse.) Perm thus by Samos. 
The Alcmaeonids expelled from Athens, on 

account of their conduct in the matter of 

Cylon. (Thuc. i. 126.) 



[596-582.] 



596. 



595. 



594. 



592. 



591. 



590. 
589. 



588. 



686. 



585. 



46.1. 



46.2. 



47.2. 



47.3- 
47.4- 



48.1. 



48-3. 
48.4- 



582. 



49.3- 



Epimenides of Crete visits Athens, and purifies 

the city. (Plat. Sol 12). 
Chi/on of Sparta, (Hdt. i. 59.) 
Outbreak of the First Sacred or Cirrliaean War, 

which lasted ten years. (600-590, Curtius.) 
Psammetichus II., king of Egypt (595-589.) 
Solon, arcnon at Atnens. 
LEGISLATION OF SOLON. 
Solon's elegies. (Bergk, vol. ii. 34 ff.) 
Odessus founded by Miletus. 
Anaximander of Miletus (Philosopher). (Diels, 

p. 24. Diog. Laert., ii. 2.) 
Anacharsis, the Scythian, is said to have visited 

Athens about this time. (Plut. SoL 5.) 
In Gyrene Arcesilaus I. (591-575) succeeds 

Battus I. (Hdt. iv. 159.) 
Orissa is taken by the Amphictyons under 

Eurylochus. (Strabo, 419.) 
In Egypt, Psammetichus II. is succeeded by 

Hophrah (Apries), 589-570. 
Pittacus is "aesymnete" of Miletus. (Arist. 

Pol. iii. 14.) 
Pythagoras of Samos is victorious in the boxing 

at Olympia (Diog. L., viii. 4*7). Damophon, 
* son of Pantaleon, kiug of Pisa. 
Re-institution or extension of the PytMan 

games. (Paus. x. 7. 4.) 
Periander dies, and is succeeded by his nephew 

Psammetichus, the last tyrant of Corinth. 
Sacadas of Argos gained the prize for the flutes 

in the first three Pythiads. His songs were 

sung by the Messenians after their restora 
tion, in B.C. 369. 
(Curtius places at this date the peace between Lydia 

and Media. See 615 B.C. In this year also, there 

was an eclipse of the sun.) 
Acragas (Agrigentum) founded by the G-eloans. 

(Thuc. vi. 4.) 
Cleistfcenes of Sicyon is victor in the second 

Pythiad. 



[581-560.] 



581. 



579. 

575. 

573. 

572. 



570. 



566. 

565. 
564. 

563. 
560. 



49.4- 



50.2. 
51.2. 

51.4- 
52.1. 



52.3- 

68. 3 . 

53.4- 
54.1. 

54.2. 
55.1. 



The tyranny In . Corinth overthrown by the 
Spartans. 

Psammeticlras, the last tyrant, was theson of G-ornis 
or Gordas, and reigned three years and six months 
(Arist. Pol, v. 9). Observe that he bears the name 
of the Egyptian king, 

Idpara founded by Cnidus and Rhodes. (Diod. 
v. 9.) 

The Phocaeans attain great power by sea. 

Battus II. of Cyrene, succeeds Arcesilaus I. 

Foundation of the (recorded) Nemean games. 

Phalaris tyrant of Agri^entum. 

The Pisatans under Pyrrhus, a son of Pantaleon, 
are defeated by the Bleans (Paus. vi. 22. 4), 
and deprived of the presidency of the Olym 
pic games. 

Aesopus (fable-poet). (Diog. Laert. i. 72.) 

Amasis (570-526) dethrones Apries, king of 
Egypt (Hdt. ii. 169 ; Diod. i. 168). The 
Hellenion founded in Egypt at Naucratis 
(Hdt. h. 170). Cyprus conquered by Egypt 
and made tributary (Hdt. ii. 182). 

The games added to the Panathenaea at Athens. 

Eugammon of Gyrene the author of the " Tele- 
gonia." (Kinkel, Ep. Graec., p. 57 ff.) 

About this time may be placed the great sea-fight 
between Perinthus and Megara, arid the revolution 
at Samos. (Plut. Quaest. Graec. 56.) 

Alalia founded by Phocaea, twenty years before 
the attack of Harpagus on Phocaea. (Hdt. 
i. 165 ff.) 

Amisus founded by Phocaea, according to 
Scymnus, /, 181 (but see Strabo, p. 547). 

Anaxandridas and Ariston, kings of Sparta. 

Peisistratus "becomes tyrant " of Athens for the 
first time. 

Curtius gives tlie following dates ior Peibistratus : 
1st tyranny, 560-559. 
2d tyranny, 554-553. 
AtBretria, 552-541. 
3d tyranny, 541-527. 



[560-543.] 



B.C. 
SCO. 



OL. 

55.1. 



559. 



556. 



554. 



553. 



548. 



546. 



55.2. 



56.i. 



56.3- 



56-4- 



58.1 



583, 



543 



59.2. 



Croesus (560-546), king of Lydia, succeeds Al- 

yattes, and makes war on the Greeks of Asia. 

Ph&recydes of Srjros. (Hise of GfreeJc prose.) 

Cleisthenes of Sicyon cannot be put much later than 

tins year, for Aristotle says that the dynasty (the 

Orthagoridae) lasted 100 years (Pol. v. 9. 21) ; 

and not much earlier, for the son of Ms _daughter, 

who -was married in his lifetime (Hdt. vi. 125 ff.), 

was Cleisthenes of Athens. (See 670, 582, 509.) 

Heracleia (in Pontus) founded by Miletus. 

(Strabo, 541.) 
Defeat of Astyages, and overthrow of tne Median 

Empire "by Gyms. 
Chilon Ephor at Sparta. (560 according to 

Diog. Laertius.) 

The Chilon mentioned in Hdt. vi. 65, as the father 
of the wife of Leotychides, must have been the 
grandson of the great Chilon. 
Tegea acknowledges the hegemony of Sparta. 

(Hdt. i. 66 ff.) 

This must be previous to the inquiries of Croesus 
respecting the position of the states of Greece, 
with a view to alliance. 

Destruction of Camarina, by Syracuse. It was 
afterwards recolonised by Hippocrates. (Hdt. 
vii. 154 ; Thuc. vi. 5.) 

Tne temple at DelpM burnt. (Paus. x. 5. 13.) 
It was rebuilt by the Alcmaeonidae (Hdt. v. 62) after 
they had been enriched by Croesus. (Hdt. vi. 
125.) 

Capture of Sardis by Cyrus. Overthrow of the 

Lydian empire ; the Greeks in Asia Minor 

and the adjacent islands become subject to 

Persia. 

Anaximenes of Miletus, the philosopher, is to 

be placed at this date. (Diels, 27.) 
Duncker fixes the capture of Sardis at 549, on the 
ground that Croesus must have fallen before the 
temple at Delphi was burnt, and his offerings 
injured. 546 is the date given by Eusebius. 
The Phocaeans expelled from home by Harpagus, 
the general of Cyrus, found Telia in lower 
Italy ; the Teans take refuge in Abdera. 
(Hdt. i. 167, 168.) 
E 



B.C. OL. 

543, 59.2 



540, 



538. 



537. 



535. 
532. 



529. 



527. 



526. 



525. 



524. 



60.1 



60.3. 
60.4, 



61.2. 

62.i. 



62.4. 



63.2. 



63. 3 . 
C3.4 



64.1. 



[543-524.] 



Anacreon of Teos; Ibycus of Rhegium, (Berok 

lii. 235 ff.) ' 

Theognis of Megam. (Bergk, ii. 117.) 
Tlte "floruit" of Theognis is* placed by Eusebius in 
545, by Jerome in 541. Siudas says that he was 
born ^n 544. As he lived to see the battle of 
Plataea, (cp vers 773 ff.), he cannot have been born 
much before 550 B.C. The date of Eusebius would 
therefore seem too early. (Duncker. ) 

Xenophanes "floruit." (Diog. Laert. ix. 20.) 
// the dxttfi be fixed at 40 years, the birth of Xeno 
phanes will fall m 580. lie lived on to the time of 
Cyrus and Darius (Apollotlorus in Clem. Alex 
Strom, p. 350 ; Diels, p. 22). 
Amyntas I., king of Macedonia. 

Capture of Babylon by Cyrus. Overthrow of the 
Babylonian kingdom. 

About this time or earlier (see 560 B.C.), Peisis- 
tratus becomes tyrant of Athens for the third 
time. The tyranny is now continuous to the 
expulsion of Hippias, in 510 B.C. 

Thespfs of Icaria, the founder of Attic tragedy. 

Polycrates, tyrant of Samos. (Hdt. iii. 39-46 
etc.) ' ' 

Phocylides of Miletus, author of elegiac and 
gnomic poems (Bergk, ii. 98). Hipponax of 
Ephesus (Bergk, ii 460). Pythagoras is now 
about 40 years old (Diels, p. 25). 

Death of Cyrus; Canibyses succeeds (529-521). 
Period of the greatest extent of the Samian empire." 

Death of Peisistratus ; his son Hippias succeeds 

him. 
Of the 33 years from 560, he had been tyrant 17 

(Arist. Pol. v. 12.) 

Amasis of Egypt is succeeded by his son Psam- 

menitus (Psammetichus III.). 
Cambyses conquers Egypt. 
The Lacedaemonians attack Polycrates. (Hdt 

iii. 39, 44.) 

Mxltiades, archon at Athens, 



[522-508.] 



B.C. 

522. 

521. 



520. 



OL. 

64.3. 
64.4. 



65.1. 



519. 
515. 
514. 
510. 



65.2. 
66.2. 
66.3. 
67.3. 



509. 



508. 



67.4- 



68.1. 



Polycrates of Samos is put to death by Oroetes 
about this time. 

Death of Cambyses, king of Persia ; Pseudo- 
Smerdis usurps for seven months ; Darius, 
son of Hystaspes, recovers the kingdom for 
the Persians (521-485). 

Cleomenes, Mng of Sparta. His attack on 
Argolis. 

Pausamas puts the attack on Argolis immediately 
after the accession of Cleomenes, but as it is 
closely connected with the fall of Miletus in 494 
(Hdt. vi. 77), and as Herodotus tells of the Argives, 
in 481 (vii 148), that Cleoraenes had recently 
slam 6000 citizens, the invasion should be placed 
later (495 B.C. Duncker) Cleomenes is king of 
Sparta when Maeandrius arrives from Samos 
(Hdt. iii. 148), i.e. in 516 (Diincker), but Dorieus 
leaves Lacedaenion soon after his accession (see 
510 B.O ). 

Plataea seeks the protection of Athens in the 

93d year before 427 (Thuc. iii. 68). Cp. Hdt. 

vi 108. (Perhaps to be placed in 510.) 
Expedition of Darius against the Scythians. 
Miltiades is tyrant of the Chersonese at this 

time. (Hdt. vi. 39.) 

Campaign of Megahazus in Thrace and Macedonia. 
Murder of Hipparchus, at the time of the great 

Panathenaea. (Hdt. v. 55 ; Thuc. vi. 56-58.) 
Cleomenes and Demaratus, king's of Sparta. 
Hippias expelled (Hdt. v. 65 ; Thuc. vi. 59) by 

Cleomenes and the Spartans. 
Destruction of Syharis by Croton; Dorieus of 

Lacedaemon. (Hdt. v. 43-45.) 
Amyntas, king of Macedonia, offers Antheinus 

to Hippias. (Hdt. v. 94.) Cp. 540 B.C. 

The Constitution of Cleisthenes. The four Tribes 
increased to ten, and the Dem.es divided 
among them. The senate made up to 500. 

Isagoras, archon at Athens ; Cleisthenes ex 
pelled from Athens with the help of Cleomenes 
of Sparta, but recalled after a short time. 



B.C. 

507. 



OL, 

68.2. 



504. 



69.i. 



501. 



69.4. 



500. 



70.i. 



[507-500.] 



March of the Peloponnesians under Cleomenes and 
Demaratus, to establish Isagoras at Athens. 

The Peloponnesian army is disbanded, owing to the 
dissension of its leaders, and the opposition of the 
Corinthians ; the Thehans and Chalcidians attack 
the Athenians, but are defeated ; first instance of 
Athenian Cleruchi at Chalcis. (Hdt. v. 74 if.) 

The Aeginetans join the Thebans against Athens, and 
attack Attica without proclamation of war (Hdt. 
v. 81). A subsequent attempt was made at Sparta 
to restore Hippias, but owing to the opposition ol 
Corinth, the allies refused to join in it. Hippias 
repairs to Sardis and creates ill feeling 
against the Athenians who are hidden to 
take him back. (Hdt. v. 90 ff.) 

The philosophers Hemcleitus of Ephesus, Par- 
menides of JElea. 

Heracleitus (Diels, p. 33) is placed here by I)iog. ix. 1. 
Apparently all that is really known about him is 
that he lived in the time of Darms. Apollodorus 
placed Zeno in 01. 79 (Diog. ix. 29), and Par- 
menides in 01. 69 (Diog. ix. 23). Plato, Farm. 
127, represents Zeno as 25 years younger than 
Parmenides. (Diels, p. 34.) 

The attempt of Aristagoras upon Naxos. (Hdt. 
v. 30 ff) 

Naxos at this time was in great prosperity, and able to 
put 8000 men in the field, besides possessing ships 
of war. Oligarchical exiles from the island apply 
to Aristagoras, who is now governor of Miletus in 
the place of Histiaeus. He undertakes to restore 
them, with the help of Persia. Two hundred 
triremes are put at his disposal by Artaphernes, 
satrap of Sardis, but owing to a quarrel with 
Megabates, the commander, news is sent to Naxos 
of the approach of the fleet. After a delay of four 
months, the siege is abandoned. The fleet set out 
in the spring. (Hdt. v. U, &>. 81.) 

Aristagoras, in despair at Ms failure, and encour 
aged by Histiaeus, who wishes to return from 
Susa, .revolts. He lays down his tyranny, 
and in the Ionian cities establishes strategi 
in the place of tyrants (Hdt. v. 38). Then 
he proceeds to Sparta in order to solicit help ; 



[500-493.] 



73 



B.C. 

500. 



499. 



70.1. 



70.2. 



498. 
497. 

m. 

495 
494. 



70.3. 



70.4. 



71.2. 



71.3. 



493. 



71.4- 



unable to move Cleomenes, lie is more success 
ful at AtHens. (Hdt. r. 50 ff., 97.) 
Hecataeus of Miletus the logographer, urged the 

Ionian cities not to share in the revolt. 

(Hdt. y. 36.) 

EEVOLT OF THE IONIANS FBOM PEBSIA. 499-493. 
The lonians, aided by troops from Athens and 

Eretria, surprise Sardis and burn it ; they 

are defeated on their return to Ephesus. 

(Hdt. v. 99 ff.) 
The towns on the Hellespont, in Caria, and the 

island of Cyprus, join the revolt. 
Second year of the Ionian revolt. 
Cyprus reconquered by the Persians, after a year 

of freedom. (Hdt. v. 116.) 
The towns in the Hellespont reconquered. War 

in Caria. (Hdt. v. 117, 118.) 
Third year of the Ionian revolt. 
Aristagoras retires to Myrcinus, and is slain while 

besieging a Thracian town. (Hdt. v. 126.) 
Fourth year of the Ionian revolt. The Ionian 

fleet defeated at Lade. Histiaeus is permitted 

to return from Susa to the coast. (Hdt. vi. 1.) 
Fifth year of the Ionian revolt. Histiaeus fails 

to excite a rebellion at Sardis, and retires to 

the Hellespont. (Hdt. vi. 4 ff.) 
Birth of Sophocles the poet. 
Sixth year of the Ionian revolt. 
Miletus is conquered. Reduction of Caria. (Hdt, 

vi. 18.) 

Aeaces is restored to Samos by the Persians. 
Samian exiles at Zancle in Sicily. 
Histiaeus at Chios, etc. His capture in Atarneus 

and execution by Artaphernes. (Hdt. vi. 26 ff.) 
Chios, Lesbos, and Tenedos, reduced by the 

Persian fleet. Other islands conquered. The 

revolt entirely suppressed. 
Themistocles, archon at Athens. 
Miltiades retires from the Chersonese to Athens. 

(Hdt. vi. 41.) 



74 



[493-485,] 



B.C. 

493. 



492. 



491. 



OL. 

71.4- 

72.i. 



72.2. 



490. 



72.3. 



489. 



72.4. 



487. 
486. 



73.2. 
73.3. 



Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela. 

Anaxilaus of Rhegium. 

Tlie first expedition of the Persians against Greece 

under Mardonius sets out in the spring. 

(Hdt. vi. 43.) 
The fleet is almost totally destroyed off Mt. 

Athos, and the army in Thrace. (Hdt. vi. 45.) 

Darius sends heralds to the Greeks to demand 

earth and water. 

War of Athens and Aegina. 491-481. (Hdt. vi. 89.) 
New preparations of Darius. 
Demaratus of Sparta is deposed, Cleomenes dies. 
Leotychides and Leonidas, Mngs of Sparta. 
G-elon becomes tyrant of Gela. 
Phrynichus, the tragic poet, produced his play of 

the "Capture of Miletus" about this time, 

FIRST PERSIAN WAR. The Persians under Batis 
and Artaphernes (with Hippias) sail across 
the Aegean Sea, land on Euooea, take Eretria, 
and then land on the plain of Marathon 
where they are defeated by the Athenians an< 
Plataeans, under the command of Miltiades, 
on the 6th of Boedromion. (Hdt. vi. 97 ff. ; 
Plut. Gamil. c. 19.) 

Earthquake at Delos. 

Aeschylus present at the battle of Marathon. 

Aristeides, archon at Athens. 

Miltiades attacks Paros and fails : his condemna 
tion and death. 

Panyasis, an Epic poet, uncle of Herodotus, 
about this time. He wrote, a " Heracleis" 
(Kinkel, Frag. JSpic, Graec., p. 253.) 

Theron, tyrant of Agrigentum. 

Chionides, the comic poet, began to exhibit, accord 
ing to Suidas. 

Egypt revolts from Persia: this delays the 
threatened invasion of Greece. (Hdt. vii i. 4.) 



[485-480.] 



B.C. 

485. 



484. 



483. 
482. 



OL. 
73.4- 



74.1. 



74.2. 
74. 3 . 



481. 



480. 



74.4. 



75.1. 



Gelo, master of Syracuse, 

Epicharmus, the comedian, still exhibits in Syra 
cuse. 
Death of Darius, accession of Xerxes (485-465). 

Egypt is recovered by tlie Persians. 

About this time may be placed the birth of 
Herodotus. 

Aristeides ostracised. 

Themistocles, archon at Athens (?). 

Tliemistocles lays the foundation of the maritime 
power of Athens, by persuading the Athenians 
to expend the levermes from the silver mines at 
Laurinm on the building of triremes, and to 
foitify the harbour of Peiraeus (Hdt. vii. 144). 
The war between Athens and Aegina is still raging, 
and the triremes were built primarily for this. 

Xerxes passes the winter at Sardis to be ready 
for Ms campaign in the spring. (Hdt. vii. 
32 ff.) 

The Greeks assemble at the Isthmus ; and send to 
Gelon, etc., for help. (Hdt. vii. 145 ff., 156.) 

Calliades archon at Athens. 

SECOND PERSIAN WAR. Xerxes sets out in the 
spring against Greece at the head of a fleet 
and an army. Tne Spartan Mng, Leonidas, 
takes up his position with 300 Spartans and 
other troops from the rest of Greece in the 
pass of Thermopylae. He is overpowered. 
The Greek fleet fights three engagements with 
the Persian at Artemisium, and retires, on 
hearing the news of the loss of Thermopylae, 
to Salamis. Pleistarchus succeeds Leonidas 
as king of Sparta. His guardians are Cleom- 
brotus and afterwards Pausanias. The battle 
of Salamis on the 20th of Boedromion. Xerxes 
fiees, leaving 300,000 men in Greece under the 
command of Mardonius. Athens occupied by 
the Persians. 
The Lyric poets, Svmonides, Pindar, Bacchylides. 

(Bergk, i. ii. 380, 569.) 
The tragic poet Aeschylus. 



7 6 



[480-472.] 



B.C. 

480. 
479. 



OL. 

75.1. 

75.i. 



478. 



477. 



75.3- 
75.4. 



474. 

472. 



76.3. 

77.1. 



Tliero and Gelo defeat tiie Carthaginians at 
Himera. (Hdt. vii. 166.) 

Xanthippus archon at Athens. 

On the 4th of Boedroinion occurred tlie victory of 
the Hellenes at Plataea, tinder Pausanias and 
Aristeides, who has "been recalled from banish 
ment, by which an end was made of the 
Persian invasion. Victory of tne Greek fleet 
at Mycale. Tne Greeks determine to pursue 
tne war and liberate the Asiatic Greeks. 
Siege of Sestos. 
The "History" of Herodotus closes at this point. 

Athens is rebuilt and surrounded with a wall, 

by the energy of Themistocles. 
Hiero succeeds Gelo as tyrant of Syracuse. 
The harbour of Peiraeus is now completed and 

surrounded with a walL 
The constitution is made more democratic by the 

action of Aristeides, who proposes that the 4th 

Solonian class shall be capable of holding 

office. 
The Hellenic fleet, under the command of Pan- 

sanias, carries on the war against Persia. 

Conquest of Cyprus by Pausanias. (Thuc. i. 
94.) 

Conquest of Byzantium. (Thuc. $.) 

Treachery of Pausanias. The command of the 
Greek fleet is transferred to Athens. Begin 
ning of the Athenian Empire. 

Hiero, tyrant of Syracuse and Gela. His court 
becomes the home of many distinguished 
Greeks : Aeschylus, Pindar, Simonides. 
(Biod. xl. 53 ff.) 

Organisation of the Confederacy of Delos. (Thuc. 
i. 96.) 

The revenue fixed at 460 talents. 

Hiero defeats the Tuscans, (Dlod. xi. 51.) 
The " Persae" of Aeschylus in the spring of this 
year (in the archonship of Menon) . (A rg. Pers.} 



[472-465.] 



77 



B.C. 

472. 



471. 



470. 
469. 
468. 



467. 



466. 



OL. 

77,1. 



77.2. 



77.3. 
77.4. 
78.i. 



78.2. 



78. 3 . 



465. 



78.4. 



Death of There, tyrant of Agrigentum. Thrasy- 

daeus, his son, is defeated by Hiero. (Diod. 

xi. 53.) 
Themistocles ostracised. He lives at Argos. 

(Thuc. L 135.) (Others put this in 476 B.C.) 
Cimon becomes the leader of the Greeks, and 

conquers Eion. (Thuc. i. 98.) 
Timocreon of Rhodes, a lyric poet, wrote against 

Themistodes. 
Carystus conquered by the Athenians. (Thuc. 

i 98.) 
Death of Leotychides ; Archidamus, king of 

Sparta ; Conquest of Scyrus by Cimon. 
Sophocles o btains a victory over A eschylus* (Pint. 

dm. c. 8.) 

Death of Aristeides (Plut. Arist. c. 26) ; begin 
ning of the influence of Pericles. 
Mycenae is destroyed "by the Argives. (Diod. xi. 

65.) 
Death of Hiero, tyrant of Syracuse. (Diod. xi. 

66.) 

He is followed by Thrasybulus, his brother. 
In Rhegium and Zancle Micythus resigns the 

power into the hands of the sons of Anaxilaus. 

(Diod. ib.) 
Naxos refuses her contingent to the alliance, and 

is reduced toy the Athenians. (Thuc. i. 98.) 
Double victory of Cimon over the Persians at 

Eurymedon. 
Themistocles passes over from Argos to Persia, 

where, after a time, he dies. (Thuc. i. 137.) 
End of the Tyranny, and establishment of Demo 
cracy at Syracuse. (Diod. xi. 67, 68.) 

At this time the Athenians attempt to found a 
colony at Amphipolis ; 10,000 colonists slain 
by the Thracians at Drabescus. (Thuc. iv. 
102.) 

Death of Xerxes (Diod. xi. 69). He was assas 
sinated by Artabanus ; Artaxerxes succeeds 
(465-425). 



7 8 



[464-458.] 



B.C. 

464 



463. 



462. 



461. 



OL. 
79.1. 



79.2. 



79.4. 



459. 



80.2. 



458. 



80.3. 



Earthquake at Sparta, and revolt of the Helots. 
(Thuc. i. 101.) This is sometimes called the 
third Messenian war. 

Thasos reduced "by Athens. (Thuc. i. 101.) 
Xanthus, the Lydian, wrote history in the time of 
Artaxerxes, (Strabo, 49.) 

Cimon marches to the aid of the Lacedaemonians. 

(Thuc. i. 102 ; Plut. dm. c. 16.) 
At this time Ephialtes lessens the power of the 

Areopagus. 

The Athenians, offended by the conduct of 
the Spartans before Ithome, banish Cimon on 
his return from the Peloponnesus, renounce 
the alliance with Sparta, and conclude an 
alliance with Argos, which is joined by 
Thessaly and Megara, who are at war with 
Corinth. (Thuc. i. 102, 103.) 

Building of the Long 1 Walls of Megara. (Thuc. ib. ) 

The Athenians send an expedition to Egypt for 
the support of Inarus, who had revolted 
against the Persian king. (Thuc. i. 104.) 

Birth of Democritus (Diels, p. 30). He wrote his 
Mucpo? Am/cooy-ios- 730 years after the taking 
of Troy. If we assume that he wrote it when 
40 years old, his date for Troy is 1150. 

The " Oresteia" of Aeschylus acted in the spring 
of this year. (Arg, Agam.) 

The Athenians at war with Corinth, Epidaurus 
and Aegina. On land they are defeated at 
Halieis, but victorious by sea at Cecry- 
phaleia. They gain a second victory, still 
more decisive, at Aegina ; Aegina besieged. 
(Thuc. i. 105.) 

The Corinthians invade the Megarid in order to 
relieve Aegina, but are defeated by Myron ides 
at the head of the youngest and oldest of the 
Athenian citizens. (Thuc. i. 106.) 

About this time the Athenians take Naupactus 
from the Ozolian Locrians. (Thuc. L 103.) 



[457-448.] 



79 



457. 



456. 



80.4- 



81.1. 



455. 



454. 



81.2. 



81.3- 



450. 



449. 



448. 



82.3- 



82.4- 



83.1. 



Battle of Tanagra, in which the Spartans at the 
head of a Peloponnesian army defeat tlie 
Athenians. (Thuc. i. 108.) 

Cimon recalled. (Plut. dm. 14.) 

The Athenians under Myronides conquer the 

Boeotians at Oenophyta; whereupon Boeotia, 

Phocis, and Opuntian Locris join the Athenian 

alliance. 
Completion of the long walls from Athens to the 

Peiraeus and Phalerum. Aegina reduced to 

subjection. (Thuc. i. 108.) 
Death of Aeschylus. 
The Athenians under the command of Tolmides 

sail round Peloponnesus. (Thuc. i. 108.) 
The third Messenian war ended by the capture 

of Ithome ; the Athenians give Naupactus 

to the Messenians, 
The Athenian army and fleet in Egypt are 

annihilated (Thuc. i. 110). Aniyrtaeus still 

maintains himself in the marshes. (Hdt. ii. 

140 ; Thuc. i. 110.) 
Pericles in the Crisaean G-ulf. (Thuc. i. 111.) 

Achaia joins the Athenian alliance. 
About this time may be placed the removal of the 

Chest of the Confederacy of Belos to Athens, as 

the tribute lists date from this year. 
Five years' truce between Athens and Sparta. 

(Thuc. L 112.) 

Thirty years' peace between Sparta and Argos. 
The tragic poets, Sophocles, Euripides. 
Ion of Chios. 
Anaxagor as thephilosopher withdraws from Athens. 

The Athenians resume the war against Persia 
under Cimon, and after Cimon's death win a 
double victory at Salamis in Cyprus over the 
Phoenicians, Cyprians, and Ciliciaus. (Thuc. 
i. 112.) 

The comic poets Grates, Cratinus. 

Attack of the Phocians on Delphi. Athens 
supports the Phocians, Sparta the Delphians. 



8o 



[4:48-443.] 



B.C. 



446. 



OL. 

83.1. 



88.3. 



445. 



88.4. 



444. 



84.1. 



443. 



842. 



The philosophers Zeno and Anaxagoras. Ana- 
xagoras (Diels, 28) was born, according to 
Apollodorus, in 01. 70. i. ( = 500) and died 
in 88.1. = 428. (Diog. Laert. ii. 7.) 

Battle of Coroaea. 

The Athenians evacuate Boeotia. (Thuc. i. 113.) 

Defeat of the Sybarites by the Crotoniates. 
(Diod. xii. 9ff.) 

Euboea and Megara revolt from the Athenian 
alliance ; the Peloponnesians, under the 
Spartan king Pleistoanax, invade Attica, but 
retire without inflicting any damage upon 
the Athenians. 

Euboea reconquered by Pericles (Thuc. i. 114), 
and the Hestiaean territory allotted to 
Cleruchi. 

Tnirty years' peace between Athens and Sparta* 
(Thuc. i 115.) 

Athens abandons the empire by land. 

Pheidias, Polycleitus, Myron, sculptors. 

Polygnotus the painter. 

YEARS OF PEACE BETWEEN ATHENS AND 

SPARTA. 445-431. 
The Athenian citizens are subjected to a scrutiny 

and a large number are struck off the roll. 
The occasion of the scrutiny was a gift of corn from 

Egypt. (SchoL to Aristoph. Vesp. 716.) 
Pericles in sole possession of the government at 

Athens. 

Another wall is built from Athens to the Peiraeus. 
Ostracism of Tnucydides, the son of Melesias. 
Thurii founded by the Athenians. (Diod. xii. 

11.) 
Em pedoc/es floruit. (Diels, p, 37'; Diog. viii. 52.) 

He died in 424. 

Among the colonists who went to Thurii were Hero 
dotus the historian, and Lysias the orator, who at 
this time was fifteen years old. 
Hippodamus of Miletus, the architect. (Arist 
Pol. ii. 8.) 



[440432.] 



8i 



B.C. 
440. 



OL. 
85,1. 



439. 
438. 



437, 
435. 

434. 
433. 
432. 



85,2. 
86.3. 



854. 
86.2. 

86.3- 
86.4. 

87.x. 



Samos and Miletus at war about Priene. The 
Milesians apply to Athens. (Thuc. i. 115 
Diod. xii. 27, 28.) 

Samos was besieged, for nine months. Sophocles 
was one of the generals in the war, elected, 
it is said, in consequence of the success of his 
Antigone, which is therefore placed in 441 or 
440. (Ant. Argt.) 

Comedies prohibited for this year and the two 
next. (Schol. Acharn. 67.) 

Samos conquered. 

The Parthenon at Athens completed. 

The "Alcestis" of Euripides. (Argt. Ale.) 
Phormio in the West of Greece. Alliance of 
Acarnania and Athens. (Thuc. ii. 68.) 

A colony sent to Amphipolis under Hagnon. (Diod. 
xii. 32. 

Battle at sea between the Corcyreans and Corinth 
ians at Actium. The Corcyreans completely 
victorious, and compel Epidamnus to capitu 
late. (Thuc. L 29.) 

Naval preparations on the part of Corcyra and 
Corinth, in consequence of the late battle. 
(Thuc. i. 31.) 

Corcyrean and Corinthian, embassies to Athens. 
Athens forms a defensive alliance with Corcyra. 
The Propylaea completed (436-433). 

In the spring, the naval engagers nts at Sybota 
take place, and in the summer Potidaea, a 
colony of Corinth, revolts from the Athenian 
alliance. It is reduced to a state of siege. 
Congress at Sparta. The war resolved upon. 
Pericles advises the Athenians to resist the 
Spartan demands, and exclude the Megarians 
from the markets of Athens and her empire. 

About this time Anaxagoras, who had returned 



[431.] 



B.C. 

431. 



OL. 

87.1. 



87.2. 



to Athens, Aspasia and Pheidias are prose 
cuted by the opponents of Pericles. Death 
of Pheidias, 

Mcio/i arranges a new cycle of nineteen years* 
and publishes a calendar, 

THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR. 431-404. 

First year of the War, (Thuc. ii. 1-47.) 
Spring. Attack of tne Tnefcans on Plataea, under 
tne command of two Boeotarcns, Pytnangelus 
and Diemporus. The Plataeans maintain the 
city when the first surprise is over, capture 
the Thebans, and put their prisoners to death 
(Thuc. ii. 2-6), including Eurymachus, who 
planned the whole. General preparations for 
war, the feeling being strongly against the 
Athenians. The Lacedaemonian allies sum 
moned at the Isthmus, in order to invade 
Attica. 

The Athenians collect at Athens. Their dis 
comfort. 

Summer. First invasion of Attica (80 days 
after the attack on Plataea, in the middle of 
the summer), under Archidanius (they ravage 
Oenoe, Eleusis, the Thriasian plain, and 
Acharnae, returning by Oropus). 

A fleet of 100 Attic ships, with 50 Corcyrean, 
cruises round Peloponnesus. Attack on 
Methone, which is saved by Brasidas ; they 
ravage Pheia, take Sollium, Astacus, and 
Cephallenia, and return home. 

The Athenians set aside 1000 talents, and 100 of 
the best ships each year, to form a reserve. 

Expulsion of tlie Aeginetans, part of whom are 
settled in Thyrea. 

Eclipse of the sun. 

The Athenians form an alliance with Sitalces, 
and come to terms with Perdiccas. 

End of Summer. Megara invaded by Pericles 
and the entire Athenian force. This invasion 
repeated every year till the capture of Nisaea. 



[431-429.] 



B.C. 

431. 


OL. 

87.2. 


430. 






87-3- 


429. 






874- 



Winter. Evarchus restored to Astacus by the 

Corinthians. 

The Athenians celebrate the funeral of the dead. 
The " Medea " of Euripides. (Arcjt. Med.) 

Second year of the War. (Time. ii. 47-70.) 
Summer. Second invasion of Attica by tne 

Peloponnesians, penetrating as far as Laurium. 

They remained 40 days, the longest stay 

which they ever made. 
Plague of Atnens. 
The Athenians sail round Peloponnesus with 

100 ships under Pericles, and 50 from Lesbos 

and Chios ; Epidaurus, Troezen, and Her- 

mione ravaged ; Prasiae destroyed. 
The fleet then sails to Potidaea under Hagnon, 

but soon returns, owing to the plague. 

Reaction against Pericles, who is deposed from 
his office of general. Proposals for peace to 
Sparta, which are refused, 

Pericles is fined, but he soon regains the popu 
lar favour. 

Lacedaemonian ambassadors on their way to 
Persia are detained by Sitalces and given up 
to the Athenians, who convey them to Athens, 
and put them to death. 

Winter. Pnormio at Natipactus. 

The Potidaeans capitulate. They are allowed to 
leave the city on terms, but the Athenians 
are dissatisfied with their generals. 

Hermippus, the comic poet. 

Third year of the War. (Thuc. ii. 70-end.) 
Summer. Instead of invading Attica, the Lace 
daemonians proceed to Plataea. 

Siege of Plataea. 

The Athenians in Chalcidice. Their operations 

ineffective. 
The Lacedaemonians assist the Ambraciots and 

Chaonians against Acarnania. Failure of the 



[429-427.] 



429. 



87-4- 



428. 



88.i. 



427. 



attack on Stratus. The Lacedaemonians re 
turn home. 

Phormio defeats the Peloponnesians in the Corin 
thian gulf. Brasidas and others sent to 
advise the Spartan commander Cnemus. 
Second victory of the Athenians. 

Death of Pericles. 

Winter. The Peloponnesians make an abortive 
attack on Peiraeus. They ravage Salamis 
and retire. 

Sitalces attacks Perdiccas. After a time he is 
persuaded by Seuthes, his nephew, to return 
home. 

The Athenians under Phormio make an expedi 
tion into Acarnania and return to Naupactus. 
Fourth year of the War. (Thuc. iii. 1-25.) 

Spring. Phormio returns to Athens with his 
captives, etc. 

Summer. Third invasion of Attica. 

Revolt of Lesbos. Mitylene blockaded, the Mity- 
leneans send ambassadors to Olympia. 

The Athenians again ravage the coast of Laconia 

Defeat and death of Asopus at Leucas. 
A project of attacking Attica by sea is given up 

by the Peloponnesians : great extent of the 

Athenian navy at this time. 
The Peloponnesians, though they make alliance 

with Mitylene, delay assistance. 
Paches blockades the city -by land. 
Winter. A property tax levied for the first time 

at Athens. 
The Plataeans attempt to break out, and succeed 

in part. 
The "Kppolytus " of Euripides. 

Fifth year of the War. (Thuc. iii. 25-89.) 

Spring. Salaethus sent from Lacedaemon to 
Mitylene to announce the help that is coming. 

Summer. The Peloponnesians send 42 ships to 
Mitvlene under Alcidas. 



[427-426.] 



B.C. 

427. 



426. 



OL, 

88.2. 



88.3. 



Fourth invasion of Attica, wMcli caused greater 
distress than any except tlie second. 

Mitylene capitulates. (Salaethus Lad armed the 
common pe- pie, who at once turned upon 
the nobles.) 

The Athenians meet to decide on the fate of the 
city. Cleon proposes to put all to death. 
Diodotus wishes milder measures. Yacilla- 
tion of the Athenians, who first decide for 
Cleon, and send out Paches, then forDiodotus, 
and countermand their orders. Alcidas the 
Spartan admiral in the Aegean. On the ap 
proach of Paches, he returns to Peloponnesus. 

Paches at Notium. Eeturning to Lesbos, he pre 
pares to carry out the proposals of Cleon, but 
is prevented by the arrival of fresh orders. 

Narrow escape of the Mityleneans. Division of 
the lands of Lesbos among the Athenians. 

Minoa captured and fortified by Nicias. 

Surrender of Plataea; the inhabitants put to 
death ; the city razed to the ground. 

Alcidas and Brasidas sail to Corcyra. The Cor- 
cyrean sedition aggravated by the presence of 
Athenians and Peloponnesians. 

War in Sicily between Syracuse and Leontini. 
The Athenians in Sicily. 

Winter. The plague re-appears at Athens. 

The Athenians make a fruitless attack on the 
Aeolian islands. 

The "Banqueter^" of Aristophanes. 

Sixth year of the War. (Thuc. iii. 89-end.) 

Summer. No invasion of Attica owing to the 
earthquakes. 

The Athenians in Sicily ; Laches captures Myle. 

Demosthenes sent with a fleet round Pelopon 
nesus ; Nicias goes to Melos ; and afterwaids 
to Tanagra, which is attacked with the whole 
Athenian force. 

The Lacedaemonians found Heraclea. 

Demosthenes attacks Leucas, but is persuaded to 
F 



86 



[426-425.] 



B.C. ! OL. 

420. 88.3. 



425. 



884. 



make war on the Aetolians. He is repulsed, 
and retires to Naupactus. The Spartans aid 
the Aetolians ; their commander, Eurylochiis, 
marches to their assistance through Locris, 
against Naupactus. 

Winter. Delos purified ; Delian games restoi ed. 
The Spartans and Ambraciots resolve to attack 

AmphHochian Argos : the Athenians and 

Acarnanians protect it. 

Battles of Olpae and Idoniene. 
Complete defeat of the Spartans and Antbraciots, 
Demosthenes returns to Athens. 
The Athenians resolve to send increased forces 

to Sicily. 
The " Babylonians " of Aristophanes. 

Seventh year of the War. (Thuc. iv. 1-52.) 
Spring. Eruption of Etna. 

Summer. Messene revolts from the Athenians. 

Fifth invasion of Attica, under Agis. Ships sent 
to Sicily, Demosthenes with them ; he wishes 
to fortify Pylus, and owing to stress of weather 
this is done. 

The Lacedaemonians attempt to recover it, re 
turning from Attica for the purpose. Brasi- 
das leads the attack, which fails. All the 
Spartans in the island of Sphacteria are cut 
off. The Spartans propose peace, but the 
Athenians refuse reasonable terms. 

Defeat of the Syracusans in the straits of Messene. 
The Athenians take no part in the affairs of 
Sicily for a time. 

Blockade of Pylus. Dissatisfaction of the Athe 
nians. Cleon Manxes the generals, and is sent 
out in the place of Ficias. He takes Demo 
sthenes for his colleague. 

The island is attacked, the Lacedaemonians surren 
der. Pylus garrisoned by Messenians of Hau- 
pactas. The Athenians attack the Corinthians, 
Battle of Solygea. They cut off Methone. 



[425-424.] 



425. 



S8.4- 



424. 



The Athenians, on their way to Sicily, stop at 
Corcyra. Massacre of the Oligarchs owing to 
treachery. End of tne Corcyrean sedition. 

Winter. Anactorium occupied by the Acarnanians. 

Artaphernes, a Persian envoy, is captured on Ms 
way to Sparta from the king, at Eion. He 
is brought to Athens and sent to Ephesus 
with an Athenian embassy, but Artaxerxes 
was just dead, and the embassy returned. 

The Chians compelled by Athens to dismantle 
their walls. 

The " Acharnians" of Aristophanes. 

Death of Artaxerxes ; he is succeeded by Darius 

II. (Nothus), 425-405. 
Eighth year of the War. (Thuc. iv. 52-116.) 

Summer. An eclipse of the sun. 

The Lesbian refugees take Rhoeteum and 
Aiitandrus. 

The Athenians under Nicias capture Cythera. 

The Athenians attack and capture Thyrea, 
putting to death the Aeginetans there. 

Conference of the Sicilian states at Gela. 
Hertnocrates of Syracuse. Peace concluded 
among the cities. The Athenians retire. 

Dissension at Megara; some wish to restore 
the exiles, some to invite the Athenians. 
Megara is saved, but Nisaea falls into the 
hands of the Athenians. Brasidas admitted at 
Megara by the oligarchical party, who massacre 
their opponents. Lasting oligarchy in Megara. 

Organisation of an invasion of Boeotia. 

Brasidas makes his way through Thessaly to 
Perdiccas. He is admitted into Acanthus, 
which revolts from Athens. 

Winter. The plot for the invasion of Boeotia is 
discovered. The Athenians defeated at Delinxn. 

Brasidas takes Amphipolis ; banishment of 
Thucydides. Torone taken by Brasidas. 
The Megarians recover their long walls and 
destroy them. 

The " Knights " of Aristophanes. 



88 



[424-421.] 



OL. 



423. 



422. 



89-3. 



421. 



Ninth year of the War. (Thuc. iv. 117 end.) 

Spring. Truce for a year "between Athens and 
Sparta. 

Summer. Brasidas receives Scione, and refuses 

to give it up when informed of the truce. 

He also receives Mende, and is engaged with 

the IHyrians. 
Mende recovered by the Athenians, and Scione 

invested. 

Perdiccas joins the Athenians. 
Thebes dismantles the walls of the Thespians. 
The temple of Here at Argos burnt. 
Winter. Brasidas attempts Potidaea and fails. 
The " Clouds" of Aristophanes, 

Tenth year of the War. (Thuc. v. 1-24.) 

/Summer. The truce continued to the Pythian 
games. Second purification of Delos ; re 
moval of the inhabitants, who are settled at 
Adramyttium. 

Cleon sails to Chalcidice and recaptures Torone. 

Panactum betrayed to the Boeotians. 

Revolution at Leontini. The oligarchs drive out 
the common people and go to Syracuse, but 
afterwards join the commons and make war 
on Syracuse. Phaeax sent to Sicily. Treaty 
between the Locrians and Athenians. 

Cleon attempts to recover AmpMpolis. He fails 
and is slain. Brasidas also falls. The 
Lacedaemonian reinforcements not allowed 
to pass through ThessaJy. 

Winter. Negotiations for peace ; both parties to 
give tip what they had captured, the Thefcans 
retaining 1 Plataea, the Athenians Nisaea. 

The. " Wasp* " of Aristophanes. 

Spring. The treaty is ratified after the city 

Bionysia. 

Dissatisfaction of the allies, who refuse the terms. 

The Lacedaemonians conclude an alliance for 50 

years with Athens. The prisoners from 



[421-418.] 



8 9 



B.C. 

421. 



OL. 

89.3. 



89.4. 



420. 



90.1, 



419. 



90.2. 



418. 



90.3- 



fephacteria are restored "by the Athenians to 
Lacedaernon. 

Eleventh year of the War. (Thuc, v. 25-40.) 

Summer. The Corinthians urge the Argives to 
take the lead in the Peloponnesian con 
federacy. The Mantineans join the Argives, 
also the Eleans, Corinthians and Chalcidians. 

The Athenians retake Scione, and after massa 
cring the grown-up men, give the place to 
the Plataeans. 

Amphipolis is retained by Lacedaemon, Pylus 
by Athens. 

Winter. Negotiations between Boeotia and 
Lacedaemon. Alliance of the Boeotians and 
Lacedaemonians. 

Eu polls, the comic poet, exhibits his "Maricas" 
and "Flatterers." 



The "Peace" of Aristophanes. 
Protagoras , born 482 B.C., died 411 B.o. 
p. 41 ; Diog. Laert. ix. 56.) 



(Diels, 



Twelfth year of the War. (Thuc. v. 41-51.) 

Spring. Panactum destroyed. Irritation at 
Athens against the Lacedaemonians, which is 
fostered by Alcibiades. 

Alliance between Athens and the Argive con 
federacy (except the Corinthians). 

The Lacedaemonians excluded from the Olympic 
festival. 

Winter. Defeat of the Heracleans by the 
neighbouring tribes. 

The " Suppliants " of Euripides, 

Thirteenth year of the War. (Thuc. v. 52-56.) 
The Boeotianb take possession of Heraclea, the 
Lacedaemonian colony, under the pretext of 
defending it against the Thessalians. 
War between Epidaurus and Argos. 
Hippias of Mis, Prodicus and Gorgias, the 
Sophists, Socrates. 

Fourteenth year of the War. (Thuc. v. 57-81.) 
The Lacedaemonians aid the Epidaurians. 



9 o 



418. 



90.3- 



417. 



90.4- 



416. 



91.1. 



415. 



91.2. 



414. 



91-3- 



[418-414.] 



Invasion of Argolis. A truce concluded, but 
violated by the siege of Orchomenus by the 
Argives and their allies. 

The Argives attack Tegea. Agis and the Lace 
daemonians march out against them. 

Battle of Mantinea (before the Carnean festival). 

Peace between Argos and Lacedaenion. 

The Argive confederacy is broken up and the 

democracy is put down. 
Fifteenth year of the War. (Thuc. v. 82-83.) 

The popular party at Argos attack and defeat 
the oligarchy, at the time of the Lacedae 
monian Gymnopaediae. Renewal of the 
alliance with Athens. An attempt to build 
walls to the sea prevented by the Lacedae 
monians. 

The Athenians blockade Perdiccas. 

Banishment of Hyperbolas. 

Sixteenth year of the War. (Thuc. v. 84- vi. 7.) 
Expedition of the Athenians against Mclos. In 

the winter the Athenians take Melos and put 

the inhabitants to death. 
Quarrel between Egesta and SeHnus. Embassy 

to Athens. 

Agathon, thetragicpoet,wins theprizeat theLenea. 
The Athenians resolve to send a large expedition 

to Sicily. 

Seventeenth year of the War. (Thuc. vi. 8-93.) 

The affair of the Hermae. 

Attack on Alcibiades for offences against the 

mysteries. 
The Athenians sail with a fleet of 134 ships to 

Sicily under Nicias, Alcibiades, and Lamachus. 

Various plans of the commanders. Alcibiades 

recalled. The Athenians winter at Naxos. 

Hermo crates of Syracuse ; embassies sent to 

Peloponnesus and Carthage. Alcibiades at 

Argos and Sparta. 

Eighteenth year of the War. (Thuc. vi. 94- vii. 18.) 
Gylippus the Spartan sent to Syracuse. The 



[414-412.] 



B.C. 

414. 



413. 



91.4. 



412. 



Athenians capture Epipolae, and commence 
the siege of Syracuse. Death of Lamachus. 
Gylippus arrives, defeats the Athenians, and 
prevents the city from being shut up. 

The Athenians under Pythodorus make attacks 
on Laconia, and in connection with Perdiccas 
attack Amphipolis. 

Nicias applies for reinforcements. 

The "Birds" of Aristophanes, 

Nineteenth year of the War. (Thuc. vii. 19 

viii. 6.) 
The Lacedaemonians declare war on Athens. 

Deceleia in Attica occupied by the Spartans. 

Demosthenes arrives with a fleet of 73 ships 
before Syracuse. He fails in aa. attack on 
Epipolae ; the fleet is defeated in the harbour 
and blockaded. After a second defeat, the 
army retreats along the coast. Demosthenes 
and Mcias capitulate, and are executed, 7000 
prisoners taken. 

The Gigantomachia of Hegemon was being re 
presented when the bad news was brought 
from Sicily. 

Archelaus, king of Macedonia (Time, il 100), surpasses 
all the eight kings before him in Ms military 
power. 

Changes in the administration of affairs at Athens 
with a view to economy and defence. 

Winter. Agis makes excursions from Deceleia. 
The Lacedaemonians and their allies deter 
mine to build a fleet of 100 ships. The 
Athenians also build ships and fortify Sunium. 
Twentieth year of the War. (Thuc. viii. 7-60.) 
Winter and Spring. The Euboeans and Les 
bians apply to AgiSj who resolves to aid the 
Lesbians. The Chians and Erythraeans apply 
to Lacedaemon ; they are assisted by Tissa- 
phernes, who is in difficulty about the tribute 
due to the king. 



[412-411.] 



412. 



OL. 

91-4- 



92.1. 



411. 



Pharnabazus also applies to Lacedaemon, inviting 
a fleet to the Hellespont. Alliance bet\\ een 
Chios and Lacedaemon. 

Smnmer. Conference of the allies at Corinth. 
The fleet is to sail first to Chios, then to 
Lesbos, then to the Hellespont. The Athe 
nians take ships from the Chians as a pledge 
of fidelity. The Isthmian games. 

The Lacedaemonian fleet driven into Peiraeum 
by the Athenians, and there "blockaded. 
Alcibiades urges the Lacedaemonians to per 
severe. 

Chios, Erythrae, and Clazomenae openly revolt 
from Athens. The Athenians determine to 
use their reserve of money and send a fleet 
to Asia. 

Revolt of Miletus. Alliance of the Lacedae 
monians and Tissaphernes. 

The Lacedaemonian ships escape from Peiraeum 
and proceed to Asia. 

Great revolution at Samos ; 200 nobles slain and 
400 banished ; distribution of land. A 
Democracy established, and the island 
declared independent. 

Revolt or Mitylene and Methymna in Lesfoos, but 
the island is recovered ; also Clazomenae. 
Distress of the Chians, whose territory is 
ravaged by the Athenians. 

Victory of the Athenians at Miletus ; arrival 
of reinforcements from the Peloponnesians, 
Hermocrates of Syracuse with them. 

Winter. Suspicious conduct of Tissaphernes. 
Second treaty betweenPersia and Lacedaemon. 

Syracuse adopts an extreme form of democracy ; 
the lot being used in the election of magis 
trates. (Diod. xiii. 75.) 

Constitution and Laws of Diodes. 

Twenty-first year of the War, (Thuc. viii. 61-109.) 

Chios "blockaded toy the Athenians; desertion of 

the slaves, which are numerous. Revolt of 



[411.] 



93 



B 0. 
411. 



OL. 
92.1 



92.2. 



Rhodes. Alcihiades joins Tissaphernes and 
damages the Peloponnesians ; he intrigues 
with the oligarchs of Samos for his recall. 
Action of Phrynichus, who outwits Alci- 
biades. Peisander arrives at Athens from 
Samos, and proposes the return of Alcibiades. 

Third treaty between Persia and Lacedaemon. 

Oropus betrayed to the Boeotians. The Lace 
daemonians in the Hellespont ; Abydus and 
Lampsacus revolt, but the latter is recovered. 

The Chians recover command of the sea. 

Subversion of tne democracy at Athens. Not 
more than 5000 to have a share in the govern 
ment. A reign of terror. Creation of a 
board of five and of the 400. The leaders in 
the revolution were Antiphon, Phrynichus, 
and Theramenes. 

Proposals for peace to Agis, who refuses them. 

Summer. Embassy from Athens to Samos, 
where, however, the oligarchs are put down 
by the sailors. The army swears allegiance 
to the democracy. 

The Peloponnesians pass from Tissaphernes to 
Pharnabazus. Kevolt of Byzantium. 

Alcibiades at Samos. 

Quarrel between the Peloponnesians and Tissa 
phernes. Alcibiades follows Tissaphernes to 
Aspendus. 

The Saimans hearing of the revolution, at Athens 
wish to sail there at once, but are restrained 
by Alcibiades. The Oligarchs at Athens again 
attempt negotiations with Sparta. Assassina 
tion of Phrynichus and destruction of the fort 
of Eetloneia. 

Eevolt of Euboea. The 400 abolished, the 5000 
established. Alcibiades recalled. Antiphon 
executed. The Peloponnesians at the Helles 
pont with Pharnabazus. Defeat of the Pelo 
ponnesians at Cynossema. 

Alcibiades returns to Samos, and Tissaphernes 
arrives at Bphesus (autumn). 



94 



[411-410.] 



B.C. 
411. 



410. 



OL. 

92.2. 



92.3. 



End of the History of Thucydides. 

Winter. Battles at Rhoeteuni and Abydus. 

Tissaphernes at the Hellespont ; he takes Alci 
biades prisoner to Sardis. 

Evagoras establishes himself at Salamis, in Cyprus. 

The " Lysistrata w and " Thesmophoriazusae" of 
Aristophanes. 

Twenty-second year of the War. (Xen. Hell. i. 1. 
11-37). 

Alcibiades escapes and returns to the Hellespont, 
where he is joined by Theramenes and Thrasy- 
bulus, with their ships. The whole fleet follows 
Mindarus, the Spartan admiral, to Cyzicus. 

Battle of Cyzicus ; defeat of the Lacedaemonians 
and death of Mindarus. Alcibiades remains 
at Cyzicus twenty days collecting money. 

On returning from Cyzicus the Athenians establish a 
fort (SeKarevT-fipiov) at Chrysopolis on the Bos 
porus to take toUs from ships passing through 
from the Pontus ; and proceed to the Hellespont. 

Pharnabazus supplies the Peloponnesians with money 
and wood. Ships are built at Antandros. 

Hermocrates and the Syracusan generals deposed 
by orders from home ; grief and indignation of 
their men. Hermocrates joins Pharnabazus. 

Revolt at Thasos : the Lacedaemonian harmost 
driven out. 

Thrasylus at Athens ; he repulses a sortie fioin 
Decelea. Agis desires Clearchus to be seat 
to Byzantium. 

Thrasylus, with a fleet from Athens, defeats the 
Milesians at Pygela and invades Lydia, but 
he is subsequently defeated at Ephesus by 
Tissaphernes. He returns to Lanapsacus ana 
joins Alcibiades. Dissension between the 
two armies. 

Evagoras, of Cyprus, rescues the island from the 
despotism of the Phoenician princes ; restores 
Hellenic civilisation, and governs with great 
justice and mildness. He pays tribute to 
Persia 



[410-408.] 



95 



B.C, 


OL. 




410. 


92.3. 


Cyprus was perhaps less Hellenic than oriental, espe 
cially atter the Ionian revolt, 496 B.C., so that 






it was abandoned by Pericles to the Persians. 






At a later time the Greek princes were supplanted 






by Phoenicians, and all Greeks were treated with 






great harshness. 


409. 




Twenty-third year of the War. (Xeiu i. 2. 3.) 






Battle of Abydus, and repulse of Pbarnabazus. 






Pylus reconquered by the Spartans ; and Nisaea 
by the Megarians. 






Destruction of tbe colonists at Heraclea, and of 






the Lacedaemonian harmost by tbe Acbaeans 






and Oeteans. 






The Medes who bad revolted from Darius now 






submit. 




92.4. 


Alcibiades gains Selymbria and Chalcedon foi 






Athens. Pbarnabazus offers terms, and en 






gages to conduct Athenian ambassadors to 






tbe king. 






In tbe absence of Clearcbus, tbe Spartan 






commander, Byzantium is betrayed to the 






Athenians. 






Pharnabazus remains at Gordium, witb tbe 






Athenian envoys, for the wbole of tbe winter. 






Hannibal of Carthage invades Sicily, invited by a 






quarrel between tbe Selinuntines and Eges- 






taeans. He takes Selinus and Himera by 






storm, and massacres tbe inhabitants. Her- 






mocrates returns to Messene, and attempts 






to force his way into Syracuse. Failing in 






tbis be retires to Selinus (now desolate), from 






which, after fortifying it, be makes attacks 






on tbe Carthaginians in tbe neighbourhood. 






(Diod. xiii. 59, ff.) 


408. 




Twenty-fourth year of the War. (Xen. i. 4.) 






Spring. As tbe Athenian ambassadors proceed 






on their way to the king, tbey are met by tbe 






Lacedaemonian ambassadors returning from 






tbe king, wbo say that tbey have gained all 






that tbey require. Cyrus is with them, with 






power to carry on tbe war [apo>i/ Trdvroav rtav 



B.C. 

408. 



OL. 
92.4. 



93 i. 



407. 



93.2, 



406. 



[408-406.] 



7Tt 



TT] KOL 



Pharnabazus retains the Athenian ambassa 
dors for three years, and then sends them to 
the sea-coast. 

Alcibiades prepares to return home, Thrasybulus 
reduces various towns in Thrace and Thasos ; 
Thrasylus returns to Athens. 

Lysander sent out by the Spartans in the room 
of Oratesippidas. He remains at Ephesus till 
Cyrus reaches Sardis, and there visits him. 

Alcibiades chosen general, though still an exile. 
He returns home on the Plynteria (Thargelion 
25) amid the rejoicings of the citizens. 

Two months after he proceeds to Andros and 
Samos. (Xen. i. 4.) 

Hermocrates again attempts to enter Syracuse, 
with the bones of the Syracusans who had 
been slain at Himera ; though the feeling is 
strong in his favour, he is not admitted. On 
a third attempt he is defeated and slain. 
Among his adherents is Dionysius. 

Twenty-fifth year of the War. (Xen. i. 5.) 

Cyrus co-operates with Lysander and raises the 
pay of the crews. He refuses to receive an 
embassy of Athenians. Lysander returns to 
Miletus and prepares his fleet. 

During the absence of Alcibiades, Antiochus, 
who has been left in command, engages the 
fleet of Lysander and is defeated at the 

Battle of Notiinn. Alcibiades is deposed, and 
Conon is made commander of the fleet. 

Lysander's year of office having come to an end, 
Callicratidas succeeds him. Cyrus receives 
him coldly, but, after obtaining money from 
Lacedaemon and Miletus, Callicratidas attacks 
Methymna, and takes it. He refuses to sell 
the Methymnean captives (owe 77, eavrov ye 
ap^ovros, ovfteva 'EXXrjvcaves TO Keivov ftwarbv 
avdpa7ro$ur6r)vai. Xen. i. 6. 14). 



[406,] 



97 



B.C. 

406. 



OL. 

93.2. 



93.3. 



Twenty -sixth year of the War. (Xen. i. 6.) 
Callicratidas defeats (Jonon at Mitylene, and 
shuts him up in the harbour with Leon and 
ErasinideSj two of the Athenian generals. 

Conon succeeds in sending out a ship, and the Athe 
nians, hearing of his condition, send out 110 ships 
(eor^L^d^ovres rods ev if^LKiq, &vra,s aTrajfras /cat 
fotfAovs KO.I Aeu0<*/>ouj, Xen. i. 6. 24). With the 
contingent from Sanies the fleet amounts to more 
than 150 ships. Callicratidas leaves 50 ships 
under Eteomcus at Mitylene and sails witL 120 to 
meet the Athenian fleet. 

Battle of Arginusae and defeat of the Pelopon- 
nesians. Death of Callicratidas. 

The Athenian ships are unable, owing to a storm, 
to pick up the sailors on the disabled ships. 

Eteonicus, hearing of the defeat, abandons Mity 
lene and retires to Chios. Conon is released. 
(Xen. i. 6.) 

All the generals deposed except Conon. 

(N.B. Erasmides and Leon were at Mitylene with 
Conon, but Erasmides was certainly present at the 
battle of Arginusae. Leon is not mentioned in 
this matter by Xenophon. Six generals returned 
to Athens : Pericles, Diomedon, Lysias, Aristo- 
crates, Tarasylus, and Erasinides. Protomachus 
and Aristogenes did not leturn.) 

The Generals charged with misconduct. The six 
are put in prison by the council, and Thera- 
menes attacks them in the assembly. 

Popular feeling is excited against them, and by 
an illegal process they are condemned and 
put to death. (Xen. i. 7.) 

Winter. The soldiers of Eteomcus at Chios 
form a conspiracy to seize the goods of the 
Chians. The conspiracy is discovered and 
suppressed. The Chians supply Eteonicus 
with money. Together with their allies at 
Ephesus, they send to Sparta with the request 
that Lysander may come out to them. 



9 8 



[406-405.] 



B.C. 

406. 



OL. 

93.3. 



405. 



93.4. 



Second invasion of Sicily by the Carthaginians 
under Hannibal and Imilcon. Siege of 
Agrigentum, which is at length evacuated 
and plundered by the Carthaginians. Uni 
versal terror in Sicily. 

Dionysius revives the Hermocratean party, and 
becomes the tyrant of Syracuse. 

Death of Sophocles and Euripides. 

Twenty- seventh year of the War. (Xen. Hell. 
ii. 1.) 

Lysander is sent out again as Epistoleus : Aracus 
as admiral [vavapxo?' ov yap vopos avrols dls 
rov OVTOV vavapxciv]. 

On arriving at Ephesus, Lysander sends to Chios 
for Eteonicus and his ships, and collects as 
large a fleet as possible. Then he visits 
Cyrus and obtains money from him Cyrus 
about this time is summoned to visit his 
father, who is sick. 

Lysander proceeds northwards with his fleet to 
Lampsacus, which he captures. 

Tlie Atnenians follow, and finally take up a position 
at Aegospotami, opposite Lampsacus. 

Lysander captures the Athenian ships and crews. 
Conon escapes with nine ships, one of which, 
the Paralus, carries the news to Athens. 

The prisoners, 3000 in number, are put to death. 
All Hellas joins the Lacedaemonians, except 
Sarnos, which maintains a democracy. 

Lysander prepares to sail to Athens with 200 
ships. Agis (from Decelea) and Pausanias 
(from Lacedaemon) march to the city. 
Lysander restores Aegina to the Aeginetans, 
and appears before Athens. 

Athens, blockaded fey land and sea, is reduced to 
a state of famine. Ambassadors are sent to 
Agis to treat for peace ; he bids them go to 
Lacedaemon. When sent thither the ephors, 
hearing the proposals, send them back from 
Sellasia. Lysander goes to Samos. 



[405-404.] 



99 



B.C. 


OL. 




405, 


93.4- 


Theramenes, on his own proposal, is sent to 






Lysander, who detains him three months and 






hids him go to Lacedaemon 






Death of Darius II. Artaxerxes II. (Mnemon) 






succeeds (404-359). 






The " Irogs " of Aristophanes. 






Imilcon marches upon G-ela. Dionysius marches 






to the relief of the city, but fails in an attack 






on the Carthaginian camp, and retires. 






Gela and Camarina evacuated and abandoned 






to the Carthaginians. Dionysius is accused 






of treachery, and an attempt is made to 






depose him, which he frustrates. Peace 






between Dionysius and the Carthaginians. 






(Diod. xiii. 114.) 






Dionysius fortifies Ortygia, and establishes him 






self strongly as despot of Syracuse. The 






redistribution of the Syracusan property 






among his friends, and exaction of money for 






his fortifications, provoke great discontent. 


404. 




Theramenes sent to Sparta, with nine others, with 






full powers to conclude peace. 






The Corinthians and Thebans urge the destruc 






tion of Athens ; this the Spartans will not 






permit, but offer peace on the following con 






ditions : The Long walls and the Peiraeus to 






be pulled down ; all the ships but twelve to 






be surrendered; the exiles to be received; 






the Athenians to have the same friends and 






enemies as the Lacedaemonians, and to follow 






them by land and sea wherever they lead. 






The terms are accepted under pressure of famine. 






Lysander sails into the Peiraeus, the exiles 






return, the walls are pulled down to the 






sound of flutes, " for that day was thought to 






be the beginning of freedom for Hellas." 






(Xen. ii. 2.) 






SUPREMACY OF SPARTA. 404-379. 




94.1. 


The Thirty established at Athens to revise the 






laws and constitution. 



TOO 



[404-403.] 



B.C. 

404. 



403. 



OL. 

94.1. 



The Samians capitulate to Lysander, \\ ho restores the 
city to the oligarchs ; establishes ten hcirmosts, 
and then disbands his fleet. With the Laconian 
ships he returns to Lace daemon, taking with him 
the beaks of captured ships, all the Athenian 
triremes but twelve, a number of crowns received 
from grateful cities, anil 470 talents of silver, 
the surplus of the funds furnished by Cyrus 
(re^evTuvros rod Qtpovs, ts 5 egdfAyvos Kal d/mb teal 
eU'QVW fry r< ird\}j.($ ereAetfra. Xen. ii. 8. 9). 

The Thirty neglect the reform of the constitution, 
and proceed to arrange the senate and offices 
to suit their own interests. All "sycophants" 
put to death. Lysander is requested to send a 
garrison to support them ; and it is sent 
under the command of Callibius. With his 
help they arrest whom they please. 

A quarrel breaks out between Critias, one of the 
Thirty, and Theramenes, about their policy. 
Theramenes wishes for milder measures, and 
greater numbers in order to secure safety. 
Three thousand are selected as members of 
the government ; the rest are deprived of their 
arms. 

Theramenes put to deatli at tlie instigation of 
Critias. (Xen. ii. 3.) A large number of 
citizens expelled, and their estates seized by 
the Thirty. 

Death of Alcibiades in Phrygia. 

Mutiny of the Syracusan army. Dionysius is 
besieged in Ortygia. With the help of 
Campanian mercenaries, Dionysius is victo 
rious,, and strengthens lus position yet more. 

Tnrasytoulus witn seventy followers proceeds to 
Pftyle. The Thirty attack him, but are driven 
away by a thunderstorm. They send the 
Lacedaemonian garrison to besiege Phyle, but 
Thrasybulus defeats them, and, with now 
about a hundred men, comes to Peiraeus. 

The Thirty, wishing to secure Eleusis as a place 
of retreat, arrest and condemn to death thiee 
hundred of the inhabitants. (Xen. ii. 4. S.) 

Critias is slam. 



[403-401.] 



B.C. 

403. 



402. 



401. 



OL. 

94.2. 



94.3. 



94.4. 



Tlie Thirty are deposed, and retire to Eleusis. 
Ten officers chosen to manage the affairs of 
the city. Preparations are made for a battle 
between Peiraeus and the city. 

The Thirty send to Sparta for assistance. 
Lysander sends them money, conies to 
Eleusis, and his brother Libys supports him 
with a fleet. 

But Pausanias, the Lacedaemonian king, takes 
out a force and encamps near Peiraeus, in 
tending to frustrate Lysander. After some 
fighting, he enters into secret negotiations 
with the Athenians in Peiraeus. An embassy 
is sent to Sparta ; and peace is restored with 
an amnesty to all but the Thirty, the Eleven, 
and the Ten in Peiraeus. 

An. attack is made on Eleusis. The leaders are 
slain ; the rest received as citizens. A general 
amnesty (Xen. ii. 4). The Areopagus is 
restored ; the laws are to be revised ; the 
alphabet receives its final form. 

Dionysius is supported by Sparta. Aristus at 
Syracuse. (Diod. xiv. 10.) 

Cyrus sends to Sparta for assistance against his 
brother Artaxerxes. Samius, the Spartan 
admiral, is ordered^to co-operate with him. 
Sailing to Cilicia, he prevents Syennesis from 
opposing Cyrus. (Xen. iii. 1.) 

Xenophon in the service of Cyrus. 

Battle of Cunaxa, and deatli of Cyrus. 

Eeturn of the Ten Thousand to Trapezus. (Xen., 
Anabasis). 

The Lacedaemonians, having for various reasons 
a grudge against the Means, send ambassadors 
to Blis, and demand that the neighbouring 
cities should be independent : on rols reXeo-t 
rwv AaKe&u/xoz/i'coi/ StKatoi/ SOKOITJ etvat, acjtaeVai 
CLVTOVS ras TrfpLoiKiftas TroXeis avTovop.ovs 
(Xen. iii. 2. 23). Agis invades Elis, but 
owing to an earthquake retires. 

Dionysius conquers Naxus, Catana, and Leontini. 
G 



IO2 



[400-399.] 



400. 



OL. 
94.4. 



95.1. 



399. 



95.2. 



Agis again invades Elis with all the Lacedae 
monian allies, except the Boeotians and 
Corinthians, and with the Athenians 

He is joined by a number of towns. He proceeds to 
Olympia and sacrifices to Zeus. Then he lays 
waste the country, and carries off abundant booty ; 
Kat tytvero atirrj $ aTparda &a"jrep ^7r:<rmo>tds 
rrj HG\oirovvf)ff($ (Xen. iii. 2. 26) Arriving at 
Elis he ravages the suburbs, but does not take the 
city, though a party attempted to put it into 
his hands. He retires to Lacedaemon, leaving a 
garrison under Lysippus, at Epitalium, which 
continues to ravage the country. 

THE LACEDAEMONIANS IN ASIA. 400-394. 

Tissapnernes is made Satrap of Sardis (as before), 
and of the provinces of Cyrus (&v re avro$ 
irpocrdev rjpx*, KOL %>v ISJvpos- Xen. iii. 1-3). 
He attempts to reduce tne Ionian cities to 
subjection; they send to Laced aemon for 
protection. TMmbron is sent out as narmost 
(with 1000 neodamodes, 4000 of the rest of 
the Peloponnesians, and 300 cavalry from 
Athens, of the horse of the Thirty). Xen. iii. 1. 

Preparations at Syracuse for attacking the Car 
thaginians. Fortification of Epipolae. 

Tbe Eleans send to Laced aernon to ask for pence. 
They are compelled to give up their cities, 
but are allowed to retain the management of 
the Olympian Games. (Xen. iii. 2, end,.} 

Agis falls sick at DelpM, returns to Lacedaemon, 
aiid dies. Agesilaus, his brother, though lame, 
succeeds ; his son, Leo ty chides, being rejected 
as illegitimate. 

Thimbron is joined by the remnant of the Ten 
Thousand. 

He receives Pergamum, Teuthrania, and Halisarna 
(cities governed by the descendants of Deniaratus 
of Sparta), and is joined by Goigion and Gongylus 
(the first, ruler of Gambnum and Palaegarnbrium, 
the second, of Myrsina and Grymum, cities which 
had been given to Gongylus, a Medizmg Eretrian), 
and captures other cities. He fails to take Larissa, 
and is ordered to Caria. Xen. iii. 1. 



[399-398.] 



103 



399. 



OL. 

95.2. 



398. 



95.3. 



At Ephesus, he finds himself superseded by Dercyllidas 
(avyp SoicQv elvat /idAa fjL7)x avLK ^' Ka ^ eirtKa.'XeiTO 
dt S/OT/00S. Xen. iii. 1. 8) Thimbron returns 
home, is fined,, and banished. 

Dercyllidas comes to terms with Tissaph ernes, and 
invades the territory of" Pharnabazns, with whom 
he had had a previous quarrel when harmo&t at 
Abjdns He proceeds to Aeolis, a part oi the 
satrapy of Pharnabazns, till lately governed by 
Mania, the widow of the late satrap, who had been 
recently assassinated by Midias, her son-in-law. 
Many of the cities come over to Dercyllidas. 

Dercyllidas takes Cebren, and, with the assistance of 
Midias, Scepsis, and Gergis, he possesses himself 
of the treasures of Mania. He comes to terms 
with Pharnabazws. Dercyllidas retires to Bithy- 
nian Thrace for the winter. 

Conspiracy of Cinadon, which reveals widespread 
discontent at Sparta. The ephors, receiving 
information, send Cinadon to Aulon, where 
he is arrested with certain helots. He is 
brought to Lacedaemon and put to death 
with torture. 

Not many Spartans were concerned in the plot, bat 
the conspirators relied on the Helots, Neodamodes, 
Hypomeiones, and Perioeci (oVou jap ev 7otiroi.$ 
TLS "Xdyos yhoiro -jrepl luTrapncLrQv, otd&a dtiva<j$u 
KptiTTTeiv rb /*,$] o$x 7]5(-ti)s &v Kcd ciytto)^ ecrBiew utirGiv, 
Xen. iii. 3. 6). 

Death of Socrates. 

The Socratic school : EuclMes, Antisthenes, A ris- 
tippus, Plato. (Plato died 348 B.C., aged 81, 
or 82, and was therefore lorn in 430 or 429.) 

Dercyllidas proceeds to Lampsacus, where he is 
visited by commissioners from Sparta, and con 
tinued in Ms command for another year. 
He continues the truce with Pharnabazus, and 
passes over to the Chersonesus, which he protects 
from the Thracians by building a wall from sea to 
sea (apdju,evo$ dirk ypivov x/xSz/ou, and finished 
irpb hr<&pa,s. Xen. iii. 2. 10). Then he returns to 



Philoxenus, Timotheus, and Telestes, the dithy- 
rambic poets. 



104 



[398-396.] 



B.C. 1 OL. 

398. 95.3, 



397. 



954. 



396. 



96.1. 



Great naval preparations at Syracuse ; qundri- 
remes and quinquiremes now built for the 
first time. 

Dercyllidas encamps round Atarneus and besieges it 
for eight months. Then he departs to Ephesus 
He is ordered to Caria to attack Tissaphernes. 
Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus unite, and proceed 
into Ionia, where they are followed by Dercyllidas, 
but a battle is avoided. Dercyllidas demands the 
liberation of the Greek cities in Asia; Tissaphei- 
nes and Pharnabazus the removal of the Greek 
forces and the Lacedaemonian harmosts. (Xeu. 
iii. 2.) [Dercyllidas is now superseded by Agesi- 
laus, who sent him as ambassador to Tissaphernes; 
as we next hear ot him(Xen. iv. 3) at Amphipohs, 
he probably returned to Europe.] 

XenopJion and Philistus, the historians. 

Double marriage of Dionysius. The Carthagi 
nians at Syracuse are plundered by the per 
mission of Dionysius. He marches against 
Motye and besieges it. General massacre of 
the Carthaginians in Sicily. 



Great alarm raised at Sparta by Herodas, 
reports tnat a large fleet is being prepared in 
Phoenicia (300 sail), tlbte destiny of wMcli was 
unknown. On the instigation of Lysander, 
Agesilaus undertakes a campaign in Asia 
[with 30 Spartans, 2000 neodamodes, and 
6000 allies]. 

Lysander offers to go with him to restore the 
" decarchies," which had been removed by 
the ephors in favour of hereditary forms of 
government. 

Agesilaus sets out for Asia ; the Boeotarchs will 
not allow him to sacrifice at Aulis (in 
imitation of Agamemnon). He passes to 
Geraestus and Ephesus. 

Tissaphernes inquires why Agesilaus has come. On 
learning that he wishes to secure the independence 
of the Greeks, he proposes a truce, in order to 
consult the king. This is agreed to, but Tissa 
phernes immediately breaks faith by sending for 
reinloi cements. 



[396-395.] 



B.C. 

396. 



OL. 

96.1. 



395. 



Dissension "between Agesilaus and Lysander. Lysander 
is sent to the Hellespont, where he persuades 
Spithridates to revolt from Pharnabazus, and 
brings him to Agesilaus. (Xen. iii. 4.) 

Tissaphernes declares war on Agesilaus, who invades 
Phrygia and carries oft much spoil. Repulse of the 
Greek cavalry by the Persian horse of Pbarnabazus 
in the neighbourhood of Dascylium. Agesilans 
retires to the sea-coast, and prepares a body of 
cavalry. (Xen. iii. 4.) 

After a vigorous resistance, Motye is taken. 
Imilcon arrives with a great force from 
Carthage, and retakes it. Dionysius retires 
to Syracuse. 

In the spring Agesilaus collects Ms army at 
Ephesus where lie exercises and trains them; 
the whole city busy with warlike preparations 
(TroXejjLov epyaa-rripiov). To inspire contempt 
for the enemy, he orders some captives to be 
stripped and sold. (Xen. iii. 4, 19.) 

Lysander and the thirty Spartans recalled, and re 
placed by Herippidas and others. 

Agesilans marches on Sardis. An engagement takes 
place on the Pactolus ; the Persian camp is taken 
with booty to the amount of seventy talents and 
some camels, which Agesilaus sent to Greece. 

Tissaphernes put to death, "by Tithraustes, who is 
sent to succeed him. Tithraustes offers terms to 
Agesilaus : the Asiatic cities are to be independent 
on condition of paying their old quota to the king. 
Agesilaus refers to the authorities at Sparta, and 
meantime undertakes to retire into Phrygia (in the 
satrajpy of Pharnabazus), if Tithraustes will 
support his forces. He is made head of the fleet 
as well as of the army, and orders the cities to 
build ships. (Xen. iii. 4.) 

Tithraustes, perceiving that Agesilaus has no 
intention of leaving Asia, sends Timoerates 
of Bhodes into Greece, with fifty talents, to 
disburse among the leaders of the various 
cities in order to stir up war against Lace- 
daemon. Timoerates visits Thebes, Corinth, 
Argos. The Athenians need no bribes. 



io6 



[395.] 



B.C. 

393. 



OL. 

96.1. 



The Thebans persuade the Opuntian Locrians to 
devastate the debateable ground between them 
selves and the Phocians. The Phocians at once 
invade Loeris, and make reprisals. The Thebans 
aid the Locrians, and the Phocians appeal to 
Lacedaemon. 

The Lacedaemonians, eager to make war on Thebes, 
send Lysander to Phocis. Pausanias is to join 
him at Haliartus. The Thebans ask aid from 
Athens. 

By sa.nder attacks Haliartus., and is slain. Pan 
sanias arrives, and the Athenian contingent joins 
the Thebans. 

The Peloponnesians retire from Boeotia without a 
battle. Pausanias., on his return home, is con 
demned to death ; he goes to exile in Tegea. 

Autumn, Agesilaus in Phrygia, which he lays waste; 
he is persuaded by Spithridates to go into 
Paphlagoma, where the king Cotys becomes his 
ally. He negotiates a marriage between the 
daughter of Spithridates and the son of Cotys. 
He marches to Dascylium, and encamps ru 
the neighbourhood of Pharnabazus' palace, who 
wanders through the country, fearing to be 
besieged. Spithridates and the Paphlagonians 
abandon Agesilaus, and go to Ariaeus, at Sardis 
(Xen. iv. 1), being refused a share in the spoil oi 
Phamabazus" camp, which had been attacked and 
taken by Herippidas. 

Agesilaus and Pharnabazus are reconciled by the good 
offices of Apollophanes of Cyzicus, a common 
friend. Agesilaus undertakes to leave the country, 
and not to ravage it for the future. 

Messene taken by the Carthaginians, who are also 
victorious in a great naval battle off Catana. 
Dionysius retires again to Syracuse ; Imilcon 
occupies the great harbour, and plunders 
Achradma. 

Alliance of Sparta and Dionysius. 

A pestilence breaks out in the Carthaginian army, 
which is now severely defeated and almost 
destroyed. Imilcon leads away the Cartha 
ginians under a secret treaty, and starves 
himself to death. 



[394.] 



107 



394. 



96.2. 



96.3- 



394-387. CORINTHIAN WAR. 

Agesilaits leaves Phrygia about the beginning of spring 
(crxeSbv d<i Kctl &ap rfdijtiTrtyawev. Xen. iv. 1. 41), 
aiul encamps in the plain of Thebe, intending to 
collect a great army and march up the country. 

The Lacedaemonians send Bp icy did as to recall 
Agesilaus. He leaves Euxenus as hannost, with 
4000 men, behind, crosses the Hellespont, and 
taking with him picked men of his army, enters 
Greece by the route taken by Xerxes. (Xen. 

Meanwhile the Lacedaemonians march out under 
Aristodemus the guardian of Agesipolis, to Sicyon. 
The allies take up a position at Nemea. (Numbers 
on each side : Lacedaemonians and their allies, 
13,500 infantry, 600 Lacedaemonian horse, 300 
Cretan bowmen, 4000 slingers. Athenians and 
their allies : 24,000 infantry, 1550 horse, with 
many light- armed soldiers) Battle of Wemea. 
The Lacedaemonians are victorious over the 
Athenians and finally defeat the whole allied 
army. (July.) 

News of the victory is brought to Agesilaus at Amphi- 
polis by Dercyllidas, who is bidden to announce 
it in Asia. Agesilaus passes through Macedonia 
into Thessaly, which he crosses with some difficulty, 
and reaches' Boeotia to meet the allies. 

News is now brought to him of the defeat of 
Peisander (his brother-in-law, whom he had 
made commander of the fleet) by Conon at 
Cnidos. (August.) 

Pharnabazus and Cooon, after their victory, 
remove the Lacedaemonian harmosts from the 
cities on the sea-coast. Dercyllidas, now 
harmost of Abydus, maintains his ground. 
Pharnabazus, after invading the territory of 
Abydus, commissions Conon to get together 
as many ships as possible for the next yeax 
and goes home. (Xen. iv. 7.) 

Battle of Coronea. The most important in 
Xenophon's time (oca OVK aXXi; T>V y' <p* 
fjfji&v. Xen. iv. 3. 16). Agesilaus is victorious; 
he devotes a tenth of the spoil (=100 talents) 
to Apollo at Delphi. Gylis, the polemareh, 
while invading Locris, is slain. (August.) 



io8 



[394-392.] 



B.C. 

394. 



393. 



OL. 

96. 3 , 



064. 



392. 



97.i. 



The army is disbanded ; Agesilaus returns home 

Keestablishment of Messene (in Sicily) "by Diony- 
sius, who is, however, repulsed before Tauro- 
menium. 

Lysias, the orator. 

Straps, the comedian. 

In the spring Pharnabazus and Conon sail to 
Lacedaernon, and capture Cythera. Pharna- 
bazus returns home ; Conon rebuilds tlie walls 
of Athens with the help of Persian money 
and ships. 

Iphicrates at Phlius ; lie defeats the citizens with 
such slaughter that they send to Lacedaemon 
for aid ; and ravages Arcadia, where his pel- 
tasts inspire great terror. (Xen. iv. 4. 15.) 

Division of feeling at Corinth. The nobles wish to 
come to terms with Lacedaemon ; in consequence 
the demos massacre many of them, on the last 
day of the festival of Eucleia. Two of the party 
admit Praxitas, the Lacedaemonian commandet, 
who is stationed at Sicyon, into the walls leading 
to Lechaeum. 

Battle of Iiechaeum. Victory of the Lacedae 
monians, and great slaughter of the Argives, who 
had come to the rescue of Lechaeum. Praxitas 
takes and garrisons Sidus, and Crommyon, and 
fortifies Epieikia ; destroys the walls in part, then 
retires towards Lacedaemon. 

The Lacedaemonians, under Agesilaus, invade 
Corinth, and establish themselves at the 
Peiraeuni, about the time of the Isthmian 
games, which in this year are celebrated once 
by the Corinthian exiles (the aristocrats) 
and once by the Argives (as representing the 
Corinthian people). While at Poiraeum 
news is brought to Agesilaus that a mora has 
been, cut to pieces by Iphicrates. 

The mora, 600 strong, had gone out from Lechaeum to 
set the Amycleans, who were returning home to the 
Hyacinthia, on their way. On its return Callias 
and Iphicrates issue from Corinth, and slay about 
250 men. (Xen. iv, 5.) 



[392-390.] 



IOQ 



B.C. 


OL. 




392. 


97.1. 


Agesilaus conducts back the remnant home as 






much as possible by night. Iphicrates re 






captures Sidus and Crommyon, and Oenoe, 






which Agesilaus had fortified. 






Jtenarchus, the son of Sophron, the writer of 






Mimes. 






Dionysius fails to take Ehegium, and concludes 






a peace for one year. 






The Lacedaemonians send Antalcidas to Tiribazus, the 






general of the king, to propose peace. The 






Athenians send Conon and others to operate 






against them. Neither side succeeds, but Tiriba 






zus puts Conon in prison. 






The " Ecclesiazusae" of Aristophanes, 


391. 




The Achaeans of Calydon, attacked by the Acarna- 






nians (and their allies, the Athenians and Thebans) 






apply to Lacedaemon for help. Agesilaus is sent 






out ; he threatens to lay waste the whole country 
unless the Acaruamans renounce their allies and 






join the Lacedaemonians. They refuse, and he 






continues to ravage the country till the autumn, 
and returns home by Rhmm. (Xen. iv. 6.) 






Peace concluded between Dionysius and the 






Carthaginians under Magon. 




97.2. 


The Athenians help to rebuild the walls of 






Corinth reaching to Lechaeum. 






Agesilaus invades Argolis; then, passing into 






Corinth, captures the newly restored walls. 






His brother Teleutias supports him by sea. 






Strouthas, who has succeeded Tiribazus as the 






general of the Persian forces, warmly aids 






the Athenians. Thirnbron is sent by the 






Spartans against him, but he is defeated and 






killed. 






Dionysius captures Tauromenium. 






Andocides, the orator. 






PlatOy the comic poet. 


390. 




Agesilaus is preparing to invade Acarnania again, but 
the Acarnamans send an embassy to Sparta, and 




j enter into alliance with them. 



no 



[390-389.] 



B.C. 

390. 



OL. 

97.2. 



97.3. 



389. 



97.4. 



The Lacedaemonians, -wishing to aid the Rhodian 
aristocrats against the Athenians and democratic 
party, send Ecdicus with eight ships and Diphri- 
das. Diphridas passes over into Asia and 
achieves success there. Ecdicus is succeeded by 
Teleutias, with twenty-seven ships. He defeats 
Philocrates, the Athenian, who is sailing with ten 
triremes to aid Evagoras against Persia. (Xen. 
iv. 8.) The Athenians send out Thrasybulus, to 
sea. He sails to the Hellespont, and establishes 
the Athenian influence in that dnection. At 
Byzantium he sells the tax of a tenth on the ships 
sailing through from Pontus, and establishes a 
democracy in the city. He also brings over the 
cities of Lesbos to Athens after defeating the 
Lacedaemonian harinost. At Aspendus he is slain 
by some of the citizens. 

Dionysius attacks Rhegium, "but without success, 
his fleet being ruined by a storm. Great 
defeat of the Thurians by the Lucanians. 

Dereyllidas is replaced at Abydus'by Anaxibius. 
The Athenians send Iphicrates to the Helles 
pont ; who defeats and slays Anaxibius. 

The Lacedaemonians resolve to invade Argos. Agesi- 
polis consults the oracle at Olympia and Delphi, 
whether he may disregard the sacred truce pleaded 
by wilful miscalculation of months by the Argives. 
Xen. iv. 7. He disregards the truce and an 
earthquake, but after greatly damaging the Argives 
is compelled to retire by unfavourable omens. 
(Xen.iv. 7.) 

Death of Conon in Cyprus. 

The Aeginetans at war with Athens. They are 
supported by Teleutias, who is succeeded by 
Hierax. 

Antalcidas sent out as admiral by the Lacedae 
monians. He goes to Ephesus, and joins 
Tiribazus. 

Chabrias passes over into Aegina, attacks Gorgo- 
pas, the Spartan leader there ; defeats and 
slays him. The Aeginetans are again sup 
ported by Teleutias, who makes an attack on 
the Peiraeus, and carries off much booty. 
(Xen. v. 



[389-385.] 



B.C. 

389. 



388. 



OL. 

97.4- 



98.1. 



387. 



98.2. 



386. 



385. 



98.4. 



Amyntas II. , king of Macedonia. 
Dionysius attacks the Italiot Greeks, who are 
defeated and captured. 

Antalcidas returns with Tiribazus, and collects 
a large fleet in the neighbourhood of the 
Hellespont, with which he prevents the corn 
ships from sailing to Athens. This makes 
the Athenians inclined for peace. 

Chabrias in Cyprus with Bvagoras, who conquers 
Tyre and OiHcia. 

The " Plutus " of Aristophanes. 

Peace concluded between tlie Greeks and Arta- 
xerxes Mnemon. Peace of Antalcidas. 

Ttie conditions were: that the cities of Asia 
should "belong to the king, with Cyprus and 
Clazomenae ; the remaining Hellenic states, 
great and small, were to be independent. 
Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros still to be the 
property of the Athenians. (Xen. v. 1. 
25 ft) 

The Thebans at first refuse to restore indepen 
dence to the Boeotian cities, but are compelled 
by Agesilaus to do so ; the Argives also are 
not allowed to remain in Corinth, which is 
thus brought under the influence of the 
Lacedaemonians. 

Plataea is restored, under Lacedaemonian in 
fluence. The city becomes "a dependency 
of Sparta," Thespiae and Orchomenus are 
garrisoned by Sparta, and parties favourable 
to Sparta are established in all the towns of 
Boeotia. (Xen. v. 4. 46.) 

Leucon, prince of the Hellespont. 

386-361. SPARTA AND THEBES. 

The Mantineans are compelled by the Spartans 
to pull down their walls ; they are broken 
up into four villages (KaQcmep TO apx' MV 
&KOVV) each of which receives a Lacedae 
monian commander (^cva-yds*). 



112 



[385-383.] 



B.C. 

385. 



OL. 

93.4. 



384. 



99.1. 



383. 



99.2. 



The thirty .years' truce after the battle of Mantinea 
had now come to an end, and the Lacedaemonians 
took occasion of the general disarming of Hellas, 
to crash any one against whom they had grudges. 
Agesilaus begs to be excused from this campaign, 
on account of the services rendered to his father 
by the Mantmeans; Agesipolis undertakes it. 
He builds a wall round the city, but is unable to 
take it till, by blocking up the river and causing 
it to overflow, he saps the foundations of the 
walls. The Argive party are allowed to leave the 
city unharmed, owing to the good offices of 
Pausanias, the father of Agesipolis, who is still 
living in exile (Xen. v. 2) and who had been on 
friendly terms with the Mantineans. 

The siege was after the harvest (alcrdopevos on 
6 (TITOS v rjj TToXct, 7ro\v$ e'lr), veTr)pta$ yevo- 
psvris r<5 TTpocrQev eret, i.e. in the preceding 
Olympiad, 98.3.) 

Dionysms restores Alcetas to Epirus ; Ms attempt 
on Delphi is prevented by Sparta. 

March of the Spartans to Epiras against the 
Illyrians. 

Lysins at Olympia : he points out the danger of the 
Greeks from the Persians and Dionysius of Syra 
cuse. The tent of Dionysius, remarkable for 
its magnificence, is attacked. (G-rote, vii. 67.) 

Ctesias, the historian. 

Birth of Aristotle. 

The oligarchical exiles of Phlius present them 
selves at Lacedaemon and ask to be re 
stored. The Lacedaemonians send to Phlius 
and demand their restoration, to which the 
Phliasians agree. The property of the exiles 
is restored. (Xen. v. 1.) 

383-379. Sparta at War with Olynthus. 

Ambassadors from Acanthus and Apollonia appear at 
Sparta, asking assistance against Olynthus. They 
plead : 

(1.) The aggression of Olynthus, who has become the 
head of a great confederacy, and is now attacking 
Macedonia, and compelling cities to join her. 
Her forces amount to 800 hoplites (? 8000) and 
many more peltasts, and nearly 1000 horse. 



[383-382.J 



B.C. 

383. 



OL. 

99.2. 



382. 



(2.) The fear that Athens, Boeotia, and Olynthus may 
coalesce. Negotiations are already on foot. 

(3.) The growth of Olynthian power or influence in 
Chalcidice, Boeotia, and Thrace (in which case 
the mines of Pangaeum would be in their control). 

The Spartans determine on war with Olynthus. 
A force of 10,000 is to be raised, and those 
who do not wish to serve in person are to 
send money (3 Aeginetan o"bols per man, 
and 12 obols for a horseman). 

The Acanthians press for immediate assistance. 
The Spartans send Eudamidas with 2000 
neodamodes,perioeci,and skiritae. Phoebidas, 
the brother of Eudaniidas, is to follow with 
the larger force. 

PhoeMdas at Thefoes. The Thebans separated 
into factions, which are headed by the two 
polemarchs, Ismenias and Leontiades. Is- 
menias is opposed to the Lacedaemonians; 
Leontiades favours them. 

With the help of Leontiades, Phoebidas seizes the 
Cadmea (the acropolis of Thebes). 

Ismenias is put in prison ; 400 of his adherents 
leave for Athens. Leontiades goes to Sparta, 
where, after some discussion, the act of 
Phoebidas is allowed, and judges are sent to 
try Ismenias. Ismenias is condemned and 
put to death. 

Dionysius renews the war with Carthage. At 
first he is victorious, Magon and many 
Carthaginians being slain ; but at length the 
Carthaginians totally defeat him, and he is 
compelled to accept their terms, giving up a 
large amount of territory and paying 1000 
talents, 

Teleutias is sent out with a part of the 10,000 
to Olynthus. He collects as many forces as 
possible, and is joined by Derdas, the chief 
of the Elimiotes. In an engagement, the 
Lacedaemonians, with the help of Derdas, 
repulse the Olynthian s. 



[382-379.] 



382. 



381. 



99.3- 



99.4. 



3SO. 



100.1. 



379. 



100.2. 



This was before the summer, i.e. the summer of 
382. For the rest of the year little was 
done. (Xen. v. 2, end.) 

Birth of Demosthenes. 

Isocrates and Isaeus, orators. 

In the spring the Olynthians, making a raid on 
Apollonia, are repulsed by Derdas. 

Later, Teleutias and the Lacedaemonians are en 
tirely defeated by the Olynthians. Teleutias 
is slain ; his army dispersed. (Xen. v. 3. 5.) 

Agesipolis is sent out with a large force from 
Sparta. Thirty Spartans accompany him. 

He is joined by many perioeei, and trophimi, 
and by Thessalian horse. Amyntas and 
Derdas support him. But he was seized 
with a fever (it was now midsummer) and 
died at Aphytis. Polybiades is sent out in 
his place. 

Evagoras of Cyprus, after a war often years, comes 
to terms with the Persians. He is soon after 
wards assassinated. 

Phlius besieged by Agresilaus. 

The Phliasians, reflecting that Agesipolis was now 
absent from Sparta, and that "both kings could 
not be absent at one time, refuse to carry out the 
terms agreed upon with the exiles. The exiles 
repair to Lacedaemon, and on their return are 
fined. Agesilaus marches out, and besieges Phlius. 
The Phliasians still hold oiit, but at length supplies 
fail, and they send to Sparta to surrender their 
city to the authorities. Agesilaus regards this 
as a slight, but the city refers the terms to him. 
Fifty of the restored exiles and fifty of the men 
in the city are to decide who is to live and who is 
to be put to death, and to draw up a constitution. 
The whole siege had occupied a year and eight 
months. (Xen. v. 4.) 

OlyntJras surrenders to Polybiades. The terms 
are : that the Olynthians must have the same 
friends and enemies as the Lacedaemonians, 
follow their leadership, and be their allies. 

The liberation of Thebes. 



[379-378.] 



B.C. 

379. 



OL. 
100.2. 



373. 



The Theban exiles from Athens, se\en in number, of 
whom Mellon \vas chief (so Xenophon, omitting 
all mention of Pelopidas), succeed in entering 
Thebes with the conmvaBce of Phyllidas, the 
secretary of Archias and the polemarchs. Dis 
guised as women, they aie brought into the 
presence of Archias and others, and slay them. 
Next they proceed to the house of Leontiades, and 
put him to death, and to the gaol, where they liber 
ate the prisoners. They proclaim that the tyrants 
are dead, and bid the Thebans join them. On the 
next day they sent word to two of the Athenian 
generals of their success; and with their help 
they attempt the acropolis, which surrenders, the 
Spartan harmost and his men bein^ allowed to de 
part in their arms. The harmcr is put to death 
in Sparta, and war declared against the Thebans. 

Agesilaus refuses to go on the expedition to 
Thebes, pleading Ms age. Cleombrotus, the 
successor of Agesipolis, is sent (his first 
campaign, in the winter : /LtaXa x^^p^os QVTOS. 
Xen. v. 4. 14.) 

The Athenians put to death one of the generals 
who assisted the Thebans, and banish the other. 

First invasion of Boeotia by the Lacedaemonians 
under Cleombrotus. 

As the way by Eleutherae is secured by Chabrias with 
Athenian peltasts, Cleombrotus proceeds to Pla- 
taea and Thespiae. He advances to Cynoscephalae, 
and then returns to Thespiae, where he leaves 
Sphodrias as harmost, with one-third of his forces 
and money. Then he returns home, "having 
done as little damage as possible." (Xen. v. 4. 
16.) On his way home he is encountered by a 
violent wind (near Creusis), so that his soldiers 
are unable to carry their arm**. 

Attempt of Sphodrias on tlie Peiraeus. 

Sphodrias, being left in Thespiae, endeavours to 
seize Peiraeus. He fails in the attempt, and 
is put on his trial at Lacedaemon, but allowed 
to escape : KCU TroAAcu? e^o^v CLVTT] 6*77 V 
AaK$ai[j,ovioi? aSi/cwrara ^LKTJ Kpt6r]vai. (Xen. 
v. 4. 24.) 

The Athenians build gates to the Peiraeus, and 
ships, and join the Boeotians against Sparta. 



u6 



[378-377.J 



B.C. OL. 




378. , 100.3. 


Second invasion of Boeotia by the Lacedaemo 






nians, under Agesilaus. 






He secures the passes of Cithaeron by the help of 'a 
band of Cleitorian mercenaries. He finds the 






Theban territory strongly secured, and finally, 






leaving Phoebidas at Thespiae, returns home. 
Phoebidas continues to ravage the countiy, but is 






slain by the Theban cavalry. 






The Theban cause is now in the ascendant, and the 






dfjfjios from the various neighbouring cities flocks 






to Thebes. 






[6 it&vTOi STJ/JLOS e atfrwz/ ets ras Qtiftas dirextipei' ev 






irdffctLS yap TOLLS 7r6\ecri Swacrreicu KaBeLffr^Kecrav, 






faffirep ev S^jScus, &crre Kal ol ev ratfrcus Tatsir6\<ri 






(bl\oL r&v Aa/ceftu/uoplcw @or}0elas 8&>jTO. Xen. 






v. 4. 16.] 






The Lacedaemonians send a polemarch. and a mora to 






Thespiae, and rebuild Plataea. 






Keform of Finance at Athens. 






Arrangement of all property in classes ; so that 






in each class the amount taxed (r//7/x) btood 






in a certain proportion to the whole amount 






possessed. The whole TiprjfjLa amounted to 






about 6000 talents. 






Arrangement of syminories for the collection of 






the tax ; 20 symmories of 60 citizens each = 






1200, among whom 300 were the wealthiest. 






This arrangement was also extended to the 






trierarchies. 






The second Confederacy of Delos. 






Chabrias, Timotheus, and Oallistratus formed the 






second confederacy. Athens to be the presi 






dent and meeting-place ; but every member 






to be autonomous, and have one vote. No 






Athenian citizen to hold property in the ter 






ritory of the confederates. 


377. 




Spring (eVel TO Zap eWcrr??. Xen. v. 4. 47). 






Third invasion or Boeotia by the Lacedaemo 






nians, under Agesilaus. 




100.4. 


He ravages the country towards the east of Thebes, 






and makes a feint of attacking the city. He finds 
dissensions at Thespiae. which he coniDoses. and 




i returns home. 



[377-375.] 



B.C. OL. 

377. 100.4. 



376. 



S75. 



The Thebans, distressed by the destruction of their 
harvests, obtain corn from Pagasae 

On his return home Agesilaus meets with an accident 
which incapacitates him for service. 

Fourth invasion of Boeotia by the Peloponne- 
sians, under Cleombrotus. 

Spring (eird Zap iiirtyaure, Xen. v. 4. 59). 

Unable to force his way over Cithaeron he retires. 

The Lacedaemonian allies are dissatisfied at the con 
duct of the war. A fleet ot sixty triremes is sent 
out under Polhs, which cuts off the Athenian corn 
supply from the north. 

101. 1. Tfce fleet is defeated at Naxos by tne Athenians 
under Cnabrias. 

At the request of the Thebans, the Athenians 
send a fleet under Timotheus to ravage the 
coast of Peloponnesus. He takes Corcyra, 
and defeats the Spartans under Nicolochus 
at Alyzia. Timotheus, remaining at Corcyra, 
adds to and refits his fleet. (Xen. v. 4, end.) 

The Thebans recover many of the neighbouring 
towns (are Se els TCI? Prjftas OVK fj.^^\r]KQTa)v 

(TTpariav eret, our'eV w TipaQeas -Trepi/TrAeufre, 
dpacreoos $rj ecrrparevovro ol Qr){3aloi evrt rets 

7TplOlKL$a$ TftiXeLS, KOL TToXiV CLVTaS \(lfJL^aVOV 

Xen. v. 4. C3). 

101.2. Else of the power of Jason, of Pherae. 

Polydamas of Pharsalus appears at Sparta asking for 
assistance to enable him to resist the aggression of 
Jason, but the Spartans find themselves unable to 
give it. Polydamas, on his return, arranges that 
Pharsalus shall join Jason, who becomes Tagus of 
the Thessahans. He fixes the contingents tor each 
city, and raises a force of 8000 horse, 20,000 hop- 
lites, besides pel taste. The perioeci pay the same 
tribute that they did to Scopas. The Thehans 
invade Phocis having now reduced all the cities 
in Boeotia. The Phocians apply to Lacedaemon 
for help. Cleombrotus is sent with four morae. 
The Thebans retire into their own country and 
guard the passes. (Xen. Ti. 1. 2, init) 
H 



ri8 



[375-372.] 



B.C. 

375. 



374. 



373. 



OL. 
101.2, 



101.3, 



101.4. 



Battle of Orchomenus, and defeat of the Lacedaemon 
ians (who had left the town on a campaign into 
Locris) by Pelopidas and the Sacred Band. (Plut 
arch, Pelop. c. 17 ; Diod. xv. 37. ) 

The Athenians, perhaps jealous of the growing 
power of Thebes, are anxious to bring the 
war with Sparta to a close. An embassy sent 
to Sparta, and peace concluded, but it is 
immediately broken off. For Timotheus, 
when sailing back from Oorcyra, being recalled 
according to the terms of the peace, replaces 
some exiles on the island of Zacynthus. 

The Zacynthians at once appeal to Lacedaemon. 
A large fleet is sent out under the command 
of Mnasippus, who sails to Oorcyra, lays 
waste the country, and invests the city by 
land and sea. In his army were 1500 
mercenaries. 

[Prosperous condition of Corcyra ; eo^'ov eep- 



372 



102.1 



e oKr)cri$ /cat ov&vas 

KaT(TKvao-fjivov$ ^ovcrav enl T&V ayp&v' 
KOL dvdpcLTroda e KOI /Soer/c^/xara Tra/xiroXXa 

T)\L(TKTO K T&V dypCOV. Xen. vi. 2. 6.] 

The Athenians send Timotheus to aid Corcyra, 
but, dissatisfied with the time which he spends 
in collecting supplies, they supersede him, 
and send Iphicrates and Chabrias in his 
place. 

Meanwhile the Corcyreans succeed in defeating 
the Lacedaemonians, who are compelled to 
quit the island. Mnasippus is slain, and 
much of the booty and the sick abandoned. 

Iphicrates, arriving after the departure of the 
Lacedaemonians, captures nine out of ten 
ships sent by Dionysius to help them. His 
crews till the lands of the Corcyreans, He 
continues to prosecute the war in Acarnania, 
and finally takes his ships to the Lacedaemo 
nian coast. 



[371.] 



B.C. 

371. 



OL. 

102.1, 



102.2 



Plataea has been again destroyed by the Thebans, 
and Thespiae is in danger of a similar fate. 
This alarms the Athenians, who send to Lace- 
daemon with proposals for peace. Oallias, 
Autocles, and Callistratus at Sparta. 

Peace is agreed upon. 

The harmosts are to be withdrawn from the cities ; 
the fleets and armies to be disbanded, and the 
cities to be independent. (Xen. vi. 3. 18.) 

The Thebans demand that they shall be enrolled 
in the peace as Boeotians, not as Thebans. 
Agesilaus refuses. The Thebans are excluded 
from the peace. 

Cleombrotus, who is still in Phocis, is ordered to 
attack the Thebans. 

Battle of Leuctra. 

Defeat of tlie Spartans ; deatli of Cleombrotus. 

The news arrives at Sparta on the last day of the 
Gymnopaedia. 

When Cleombrotus inquired of the T\T} what he was 
to do, Prothous suggested that he should disband 
his army, and that they should send round to the 
cities to contribute a sum to the temple of Apollo 
(as much as each city wished), and if any city 
refused to allow autonomy the allies should 
assemble and make war upon it, fi d e/c/cXijtn'a, 
d/coi5<ra<ra ravra, SKS'LVOV JJL^V <p\vapetv riyycraro, 

Cleombrotus enters Bpeotia through Thisbae, and 
advances to Creusis, where he captures the fort 
and takes twelve Theban vessels. Then he 
advances to Leuctra, the Tliebans being on the hill 
opposite, near the tomb of the two girls who had 
been violated and killed by Lacedaemonians, which 
they thought to be an omen of victory. The 
camp-followers of the Boeotians, who wish to leave 
the camp, are driven back by the Peloponnesians. 
The cavalry of the Lacedaemonians very inferior 
to the Thebans, because the horses at Sparta were 
not properly trained or mounted (rQv 8' a5 
trrpa.TicaT&j' oi rois crdh/uacrw aSwar^raroL teal 
iJKicrTa <()i\6Ti[t,Qi eirl r&v UTTTTUV fjcrcLv, Xen. vi. 
4. 11). The Laced aemoTii an infantry drawn up 
12 deep, the Theban 50 deep. 



[371-370.] 



B.C. 

371. 



370. 



OL. 
302.2. 



102.3 



The Lacedaemonian cavalry at once defeated and 
diiven upon their infantry. The Thebans follow : 
the right, where Cleombrotus is., gives way. 
Dmon, the polemarch, is slain ; Sphodrias and Ms 
son. The left also retires. Behind the tiench 
which was in front of the camp they pitch their 
tents. Xenophon puts the number of the slain at 
1000 Lacedaemonians, 400 Spartans out of 700. 
The Spartans ask for their dead under truce. 

The Thebans, eager to destroy the remnant of the 
Lacedaemonians, send to Athens where their 
messages are coldly received, and to Jason who 
dissuades them from their purpose. The Lacedae 
monians retire by Crensis to Aegosthena, where 
they meet with the contingent which has been 
sent out under Archidanius, the son of Agesilaus, 
to support them. 

Results of tlie Battle of Leuctra. 

(1) The Athenians send for all who wish to hold to the 
peace of Antalcidas, and this oath is taken : ^it;uej><3 
TOLS cnrovdats S-s /3ct<riAei)s /car^re/-^, /cai TO?* 



8 ns (TTpare^rat eirl TWO. ir6\tv rQv 
rbvde rbv ftpKOv, jSo7?^<rw ircnvTl ffB&et. (Xen. 
vi. 5 ) The Eleans offer some objections, con 
testing the autonomy of the Marganeans, the 
Scilluutiaiis and the Tripliylians. 

(2) The Mantineans unite and rebuild their walls. 

Agesilaus attempts to defer the project, offering 
Lacedaemonian assistance The Mantineans pro 
ceed with their work, and Agesilaus is unable to 
prevent it. 

(3) Party quarrels in Tegea. The democratic party 
wish for a united Arcadia, which shall manage the 
affairs of the nation (/cai frrtvucifa v ry KOLV$, rovro 
Ktipiov etvat Kal r&v T^Xecov). The aristocrats wish 
things to remain as they are. With the help of the 
Mantineans, the democrats put some of their 
opponents to death. 800 escape to Sparta. 

(4) Tlie Scytalism at Argos The democracy dis 
cover a plot of the oligarchs against the democracy. 
Outburst of popular fury, ending in the execution 
of 1200 of the principal citizens. (Diod. xv. 
57, 58.) Other cities Fhigalea, Phlius, Corinth, 
Sicyon, Megara are the scenes of like disturb 
ances. 



[370-369.] 



121 



B.C. 

370. 



OL. 

102.3, 



369. 



102.4. 



(5) Foundation of Megalopolis which Xenoplion 
does not expressly mention (Pausanias, Dio- 
dorus). 

(6) Massacres at Orcliomemis in Boeotia by the 
Thebans. The males put to death, the women 
and children sold into slavery. (Diod. xv. 79.) 

The Spartans aid the Tegeate exiles. Agesilaus 
marches into Arcadia; he is joined by the 
Heraeans and Lepreatae. The Orchomenians 
(Arcadians) refuse to join the Arcadians ; they are 
attacked by the Mantineans, but join Agesilaus, 
who cannot succeed in bringing the Mantineans to 
a battle, and returns (/col yap %v utaos yetuo&i'. 
Xen. vi. 5. 20). / f / ** A. t* , 

Assassination of Jason of Pherae before the 
Pythian games. 

Jason is succeeded by Polydorus, his brother, 
who is supposed to have instigated the 
murder. Polydorus is slain by Polyphron, 
another brother, who is again assassinated by 
Alexander of Pherae. 

The Thebans invade Peloponnesus for the first 
time. 

The Thebans join the Arcadians. With them are the 
Phocians, the Euboeans, the Locrians, the Acar- 
nanians, the Heracliotae, the Malians, and horse 
and peltasts from Thessaly. They invade La- 
conia, burn Sellasia, and encamp near the city of 
Sparta, on the left of the river. 

The Theban army passes to Amyclae, and there 

crosses the river ; then, failing to take Sparta, 

passes down to Helos and Gythium. 
The Spartans arm the Helots (6000 came forward) and 

are assisted by the Phliasians, the Corinthians, 

the Epidaurians and Pellenians. 
The Thebans restore Messenia, and build Mes- 

sene (Pausanias iv. 27 ff., not mentioned by 

Xenophon). 

The Athenians conclude a peace with the Lace 
daemonians, and send Iphicrates to prevent 
the return of the Thebans. This he fails to 
do : while he is watching on Oneum, they 
pass by Cenchreae. (Xen. vi. 5.) Winter 
(rrpos 6 eVi KOL xctj^wv r\v^ Xen. vi. 5. 50) 



122 



[369.] 



B.C. 

369. 



OL. 
102.4. 



The terms of the peace. (Xen. vii. 1.) The 
proposal that Athens and Sparta should 
command by land and sea respectively is 
rejected each city is to retain the entire 
command for five days, and then surrender it 
to the other for five days. 

Phlius When tlie Thebans were at Arayclae, the 
Phliasians, though abandoned, "because last, by 
the general who was leading the detachment of 
auxiliaries from Prasiae ; found their way to 
Sparta. They became allies of the Lacedae 
monians, when they were most powerful, and 
remained faithful after Leuctra (aTroa-rdvrajv /mev 
7roXXw*> irepiOLKtav dsiroaT&vTwv 5k irdvTUv rQv 
Wi\d)T<uv, (-TL C^TWZ/ cri'/x/jei;xa;j>, TrX^v irdvv o 
Xen. vii. 2. 2). 

When the Thebans entered the Peloponnesus, the 
Argives invaded Phlius (iravSy/tei, Xen. viii. 2. 4). 
When they went away, the Phliasian horse attacked 
the rear of their army, and obtained some slight 
advantage. When the Thebans again entered, and 
the Arcadians and Eleans were going through 
Nemea to join them, Phliasian exiles offer to put 
Phlius in their power. The attempt is made, and 
fails ; though the acropolis for a time is in the hands 
of the enemy. After harvest ; for the sheaves which 
were in the acropolis were burnt to drive out 
the assailants (irpoa-Qfyovres r&v dpayjuLdruv, & 
&rvxpv ai/nfc TTJS d/c/3ox6Xews reQepurfdva, Xen. 
vii. 2. 8). 

Summer. Second invasion of tlae Peloponnesus 
by the Tnefoans. 

They surprise the Lacedaemonian and Pellenians, 
who have guarded Oneiim, and force their 
way through. They are joined by the Arcadians, 
Argives, and Eleans, and at once attack Sicyon, 
Pellene, etc. 

Dionysius of Syracuse sends help to the Spartans : 20 
triremes with Celts and Iberians, and cavalry, 
which harass the Thebans in the plain before 
Corinth. The Thebans return home, failing to 
take Corinth ; the contingent from Syracuse also 
returns. 

Lycomedes in Arcadia. He creates ill-feeling 
against the Thebans after their departure. 



[369-368.] 



B.C. 

369. 



368. 



OL. 

102.4. 



103.1. 



A man of position, and birth, lie claims Peloponnesus 
for the Arcadians as "being; autochthonous, urges 
them to take a leading part, and not to be at 
the beck and call of the Thebans. The Arcadians 
at once assist the Argives, who in an attack on 
Epidaurus are held in check by the Athenians under 
Ohabnas, and the Corinthians. They also conquer 
the Lacedaemonian garrison at Asine. (Xen. vii. 
1. 23 ff.) 

The Thebans march to Thessaly under Pelopidas 
to protect Larissa against Alexander of Pherae. 
He unites the Thessalian cities against Alex 
ander, and brings the Macedonians into alli 
ance with Thebes (taking 30 hostages, among 
them, Philip, the son of Amyntas, to Thebes). 

Attempt on the part of Ariobarzanes to bring about a 
;peace 3 through Philiscns, at Delphi. The project 
falls to the ground, because the Thebans would 
not permit Messene to be subject to the Lacedae 
monians Philiscus gathers together a large force 
to support the Lacedaemonians, but nothing 
comes of it. (Xen. vii. 1. 27. ) 

Dionysius again sends help to the Lacedaemonians. 
They take Carya (putting the inhabitants to death) 
and invade the Parrhasians in Arcadia, when 
the auxiliaries wish to return, to Syracuse, but, 
being cut off by the Argives and Arcadians, they 
send to the Lacedaemonians for help. The 
Arcadians are defeated with great slaughter. 
The Tearless Victory. 

Elis claims sovereignty over Lepreum and other towns 
in Triphylia, but these towns are admitted 
members of the Arcadian alliance, and the claims 
of Elis are rejected. 

The Arcadians and Argives again attack the Phliasians, 
but the Phliasian horse defeats them eiri ry Sia- 
jSdcret rov TTOTCL^OV with th e help of the Athenians. 

Dionysius again (cf. 383) attacks the Cartha 
ginians, but he is defeated at Lilybaeum. 
He gains the prize for tragedy at the Lenaean 
festival, and soon after dies. 

Dionysius the younger succeeds his father cr^My 
Trepl TOVTOV rov xpovov (Xen. vii. 4. 12)* He 
sends twelve triremes to the Lacedaemonians 
under Timocrates, who assists in taking Sel- 
lasia, and then departs, 

Plato in Sicily. 



124 



[367.] 



B.C. 

367. 



103.2. 



Third invasion of the Peloponnesus by the Theoans 

under Epaminondas. 

He induces Peisias of Argos to secure the passes of 
Oneum, and then proceeds to Achaea. The 
Achaeans become allies of the Thebans (Epami 
nondas undertaking that the aristocracies shall 
not be banished, or the constitution changed), who 
return home G-reat dissatisfaction at Thebes ; 
Epaminondas is not re-elected commander ; 
harmosts are sent to the Achaean cities ; demo 
cracies established ; the nobles banished, but the 
latter return and get possession of the cities. 

Euphron establishes himself at Sicyon by Arcadian 
(Theban) and Argive influence. 

Embassy of the Greeks to Snsa ; Pelopidas, 
Antiochus the Arcadian, Archidanms the 
Elean, Timagoras and Leon from Athens. 
Pelopidas proposes to the king, as the basis 
of a peace, that Messene is to be recognised 
as an independent city, and the Athenians 
are to draw up their ships. Leon resists on 
the part of the Athenians, and, on his return, 
Thnagoras, who joined with Pelopidas, is put 
to death. The proposals lead to no result. 
Antiochus declares to the Arcadians, on his 
return, that the king's wealth is exaggerated, 
and the famous golden plane would not give 
shade to a lizard. (Xen. viL 1. 38.) 

After the Thebans are in possession of Sicyon, an 
attempt is made to gain Phlius from, thence, in 
which Euphron joins with 2000 mercenaries. The 
Pellenians join with them. The Phliasians are 
victorious over the Pellenians, and set np a trophy. 
(Xen. vii. 2. 11-15.) 

The Phliasians obtain supplies from Corinth. On one 
occasion, when Chares was with them as convoy, 
they persuade him to attack the Sicyonians in 
Tnyamia. They reach them at sunset, disperse 
them, and take possession of their supplies. 
This was after the defeat of the Pellenians, who 
are now friends with Phlius (robs &-vpdovs 
ffvvKTrjjL\j/cLL eZ? Trjv TLcXK^vfjv , Xen. vii. 2. 18). 
(Grote, vii. 236 If.) 



[367-366.] 



B.C. 

367. 



366. 



OL. 

103.2. 



103.3. 



125 



Xen. vii. 3. 1 crxeSbv 5 Trepl rovrov rbv , 

Aeneas, the Arcadian general, is dissatisfied with 
affairs in Sicyon, and calls the "bravest men in tlie 
city to his aid. Euphron retires to the harbour, 
which he offers to the Lacedaemonians through 
Pasimelus, the Corinthian. 

Euphron is finally restored with the help of some 
Athenians (\ap&v ' 'ASfyqeev &tic6v), "but the 
Theban harmost still retains the acropolis. 

Euphron goes to Thebes to bribe the Thebans into 
giving up the acropolis to him. He is assassi 
nated there by the opposite party. The assassins 
are acquitted (ot /-i&rot iroXirai &Mv, w? foSpa 



&px?iyb"y TW ir 
(Grote, vii. 238 ) 



, 
iroXews cr^ozrcu. Xen. vii 3. 12). 



State congress at Thebes. The states of Greece are 

summoned to Thebes to hear the king's letter, but 
they refuse to swear to the terms. Lycomedes 
will not recognise the superior position of Thebes, 
and retires, taking the Arcadian envoys with him. 
The Thebans then send round to the various cities 
to have the oaths taken, but Corinth refuses, and 
the whole project of a peace, under Persian influence 
and the leadership of Thebes, falls to the ground. 

Pelopidas in Thessaly ; he is seized and imprisoned 
by Alexander. The army which is sent out to 
recover him is defeated, and only saved by the 
skill of Epaminondas. A second expedition under 
Epaminondas is more successful. Pelopidas is set 
at liberty, but the influence of Thebes in Thessaly 
is greatly shaken. [The precise dates of these 
events are uncertain ; Grote, vii. 250.1 (Diod. xv. 
71-75.) 

While the Phliasians are engaged in fortifying 
Thyarnia, Chares being with them, Oropus is 
taken from Athens by exiles from Eretria, and 
in consequence Chares is ordered home. The 
harbour of the Sicyonians is now taken by the 
Arcadians and Theban party in the city. Oropus 
is put into the hands of the Thebans till the rival 
claims are decided (Xen. vii. 4. 1), for none of her 
allies assisted Athens. 

Lycomedes, on the part of the Arcadians, negotiates a 
peace with Athens. On his return he perishes 
oaL/AQvi&TaTa. Having entire liberty of choice he 
chose to disembark ZvQa. ot <j>vy&5e$ (his enemies) 



126 



[366-361] 



B.C. 

366. 



365. 



364. 



OL. 
103.3. 



103.4. 



104.1 



The Athenians attempt to gain Corinth (Xen vii 4. 3), 
but the Corinthians send away all Athenians from 
their garrisons, and refuse to admit Chares with 
his fleet. They apply to Thebes for terms ot 
peace, and after attempting to carry the Lacedae 
monians with them, who refuse to renounce 
Messene, they and the Phliasians conclude peace 
with Thebes Ce0' $ re &x eLV T V &aurQv e/cdcrrous 
Xen. vii. 4 10). 

In spite of these terms the Argives retain Tricaranum, 
with the Phliasian exiles. 

The Eleans seize Lasion, which, formerly Elean, is now 
Arcadian. The Arcadians march against them 
and defeat them. They then proceed against the 
cities of the Acroreii, take all except Thraustus, and 
arrive at Olympia, where they establish them 
selves. [Differences in Elis ; a democracy and an 
oligarchy. The dernocratical party think to make 
use of the presence of the Arcadians, and seize the 
acropolis, but they are dislodged and driven out. 
With the Arcadians the exiles occxrpy Pylus. 
The Arcadians seize Olourus, belonging to the 
Pellenians, which the Pellemans, who are now 
allies of the Lacedaemonians, recover.] 

Timotheus sent with a fleet to Asia to assist Aria 
barzanes. He conquers Sarnos. Agesilaus als 
in Asia, but without an army. 

The Athenians admitted in part to the Cher- 

sonesus. Kleruchs are sent out both to 

Sainos and to the Chersonesus. 
Timotheus acts against Ootys, king of Thrace ; 

he supersedes Iphicrates, but fails to recover 

Amphipolis. 
The Thebans invade Thessaly, and Pelopidas is 

delivered. 

The Arcadians again in Elis. The Eleans call 
upon the Lacedaemonians. Siege of Cromnus. 
The Lacedaemonians defeated, and Archi- 
dainus wounded. The Eleans recover Pylus. 

Pelopidas sent with an army against Alexander 
of Pherae. (Grote, vii. 271, etc.) 

The Arcadians at Olympia ; they celebrate the 
festival, with the Pisatans. The Eleans 
attempt to prevent them, with great bravery. 



[363-362.] 



127 



B.C. 

363. 



362. 



OL. 

104.1. 



104.2. 



Thebes sends out a fleet under Epaminondas to 
tne Hellespont and Bosporus. 

Pelopidas falls in battle against Alexander at 
Cynosceplialae. The Thebans victorious. 
During the absence of Epaminondas^ Orcho- 
menus is destroyed by the Thebans. 

Arcadians at Olympia (Xen. vii. 4. 29). They 
use the sacred money (Xen. vii. 4. 33). The 
Mantineans refuse to do this ; and the use 
is condemned in the Mvptot ; hence a quarrel 
between Arcadia and Mantinea, and a divi 
sion between the Arcadians. The party who 
had availed themselves of the sacred money 
apply to Thebes ; those who opposed it make 
peace with the Eleans. The peace party are 
arrested in great numbers at Tegea, but set 
at liberty on the representations of Mantinea. 

Epaminondas marcnes into Peloponnese with all 
tne Boeotians, tne Eufooeans, and many Tnes- 
salians. In Peloponnese the Thebans had 
the Argives, Messenians, and part of the 
Arcadians ; i.e. the Tegeatae, MegalopoJitae, 
Aseatae, and Pallanteis. Epaminondas halts 
at Nemea, and from there passes to Tegea 
(cvrvx?) fjiev ofiv eywye OVK av (pTjcratfii rr]v 
(TTpareLav avra yevv6aC ocra pevroi Trpovoias 
epya Ka\ roXfjLrjs Gcrrlv, ovSe? /uot 5o/ct 6 avr}p 
e\\i7riv. Xen. vii. 5. 8). He narrowly es 
capes taking Sparta (ib. sect. 10). He returns 
to Tegea, and sends on his horse to Mantinea. 
(According to Xenophon, Epaminondas was 
repulsed at Sparta and his horse at Man- 
tinea.) 

Battle of Mantinea Deatli of Epaminondas. In 
decisive result of the battle (vevtKrjKevai 6e 
(j)da"KOVTS KarepOL ovre ^<pa, ovre 
oijr dpxfj ovfterepoi ovdev 7r\eov ex 
e^avr^O'av TJ rrplv TT\V /za^v yeveaQai' aKpicrta 
8e /cat rapaxf) en TrKciav fjLera TTJV fjidxijv 
eyeVcro rj Trpocrfav, ev rfi 'EXXadi. Xen. vii. 
6. 27). 



128 



[362-360.] 



B.C. 

362. 



361. 



360. 



01* 

104.2. 



104.3- 



104. 4 . 



Timotheus, who had been engaged making war upon 
Cotys andAmphipoliSjis recalled by the Athenians; 
Ergophilus succeeds him, Calhsthenes taking the 
command against Amphipolis. Alexander of 
Pherae equips a fleet, with which he captures 
Tenos, and afterwards defeats the Athenians at 
Peparethus, under Leosthenes. Encouraged by 
these successes, he makes a raid upon the Peiraeus 
and carries off much booty. Callisthenes fails to 
take Amphipolis, which is now under the protec 
tion of Macedon. Ergophilus also is unsuccessful 
against Cotys, Both are recalled and put on 
their trial. 

Pammenes is sent into Peloponnesus, from Thebes, with 
3000 men, to maintain the integrity of Megalopolis. 
(Diod. xv. 94. See Grote, vii. 315.) 

At this time Persia is in great disorder. Egypt has 
become an independent kingdom under Tachos, 
and Asia is in revolt. Datames, who has long 
been the mainstay of the imperial cause, now 
joins with Aripbarzanes, the satrap of the Helles 
pont, in the insurrection. Datames is assassin 
ated, but the revolt is joined by Mausolus of 
Caria, Orontes of Mysia, and Autophradates of 
Lyclia. 

Agesilaus and Chabrias join Tachos. Agesilaus, how 
ever, quickly abandons him for his rival Nectanebos, 
whom he establishes on the throne. 

Dion exiled from Syracuse by Dionysius IL 

Aeschines, the orator, at Mantinea. 

Autocles is sent out from Athens to the Hellespont to 
secure the corn supplies. Miltocythes revolts 
from Cotys and sends to Athens for assistance, 
which is not granted to him. Autocles is recalled 
and put on his trial. Menon succeeds him in the 
command in Thrace, and, after a time, Tim omachus 
succeeds Menon. Callistratus banished from 
Athens ; Aristophon gains influence. 

Chares sails for Corcyra, but is too late to save the 
island for the Athenian alliance. 

Plato visits Dionysius II. for the second time. 

Cephisodotus succeeds Trmomachus, who goes into exile 
to escape punishment. About this time Iphicrates 
retires from Thrace to Lesbos. Charidemus, who 
returns from Asia, supports Cotys, who now seizes 
Sestus, and claims the Chersonese. 



[360-358.] 



I2 9 



B.C. 

360. 



359. 



OL. 

105.1 



105.2. 



358. 



105.3, 



Assassination of Cotys ; he is succeeded "by his son 
Cersobleptes (who also has the support of Chari- 
dernus) ; the two compel Cephisodotus to conclude 
a disgraceful treaty, in which Cardia is ceded to 
Charideimis. 

About this time the revolt in Persia is crushed. 

The claims of Cersobleptes to Thrace are opposed by 
two rivals, Berisades and Amadocus. Charidemtis 
stations himself at Cardia ; Miltocythes falls into 
his hands ; he delivers him over to the Cardians, 
who put him to death, together with his son. 
Indignation at this act enables Berisades and 
Amadocus to increase their power. Thrace is 
divided into three equal portions ; the Chersonese 
is to be given up to Athens, but there is great 
delay in ceding it. 

Death of Artaxerxes II., king of Persia, and 
accession of Ochus. 

Assassination of Alexander of Pfcerae. By the 
connivance of his wife, he was murdered by 
her three brothers Tisiphonus, Peitholaus, 
and Lycophron. (Of. G-rote, vii. 638.) 

Perdiccas of Macedon slain in battle against the 
Illyrians. Accession of Pnilip II. He con 
ciliates the Athenians by withdrawing from 
Ainphipolis and offering peace, which is 
accepted. He obtains a victory over the 
Paeonians and Illyrians, 

Chabrias now returns from Egypt to Athens. 

The Chersonese is finally handed over to Athens. 
Great extent of the Athenian power at this time. 
Euboea, which, since the battle of Leuctra (371 B c.) 
has been under Theban control, now revolts. 
Athens sends prompt aid under Timotheus, and 
rescues the island. First instance of voluntary 
trierarchs. 

Revolt of tne Allies from Athens. SOCIAL WAR, 
353-356. 

Chios, Cos, Rhodes, and Byzantium revolt from 
Athens. They are supported by Mausolus 
of Caria. Battle of Chios ; defeat of the 
Athenians, and death of Chabrias. 



130 



[358-355.] 



B.C. 

358. 



357. 



OL. 
105.3- 



105.4. 



356. 



108.1. 



355. 



Philip besieges Amphipolis, and prevents the 
city from obtaining aid from Athens. 

Chares, Tiraotheus, and Iphi crates in the Helles 
pont with a fleet to act against the allies. 
Chares, against the wish of his colleagues, 
attacks the enemy, and is unsuccessful. On 
his return to Athens he impeaches them. 
Iphicrates is acquitted ; Timotheus is con 
demned to a fine of 100 talents. He retires 
to Chalcis. 

Philip conquers Amphipolis. The Olynthians, 
alarmed at the fall of the city, offer alliance 
to Athens, which is rejected. Philip, though 
an ally of Athens, makes himself master of 
Pydna and Potidaea, towns belonging to 
Athens, and gives Potidaea to the Olynthians. 

War "between Athens and PMlip (357- 346). 

Return of Dion to Syracuse. 

Death of Agesilaus on his return from Egypt. 
He is succeeded by his son Archidamus 
(357-338). [Others put his death in 361.] 

Chares, at the head of a large Athenian fleet, 
enters the service of Artabazus, then in revolt 
against the king ; with his help, Artabazus 
gains a great victory over Tithraustes. The 
king supports the revolted allies, so that 
Athens, in alarm, comes to terms with them 

Foundation of Philippi. Philip, now in pos 
session of the mines of Pangaeum, issues a 
?^ld coinage. Defeat of the Illyrians by 
armemo. 

Birth of Alexander tfce Great, son of PMlip and 
Olympias, the daughter of tlie King of the 
Molossians. 

Dissensions between Heraclides and Dion, who 
retires to Leontini. 

Outbreak of the Phocian or Third Sacred War. 



[355-353.] 



B.C. 


OL. 




355. 


106.1. 


The Phocians are accused of occupying some of 






the sacred land belonging to the temple at 






Delphi. A fine is imposed upon them by 






the Amphictyonic Council. The Phocians, led 






by Philomelus, refuse to pay the fine. They 




1f\(\ fy 


seize Delphi, from which the Locrians are 




1UO 2 


unable to dislodge them. An extraordinary 






Amphictyonic Council is summoned, and war 






declared against them- Philomelus attempts 






to gain support throughout Greece. 






Mausolus of Caria establishes an oligarchical 






form of government in Chios, Cos, and 






Rhodes. 






Demosthenes " Against A ndrotion" 


354. 




The Thebans march out to Delphi against the 






Phocians. Philomelus is defeated and slain, 






but the war is continued by Cnomarchus and 






Phayllus. Free use is made of the sacred 






treasures of the temple to attract mercenaries 






from all quarters. 






Eubulus minister of finance at Athens. Death 






of Timotheus at Chalcis. 




106.3. 


Demosthenes "Against Leptines" and "On the 






Symmories" 






The first oration was a reply to a proposal to cancel 






all immunities, or exemptions from public service, 






except those granted to the descendants of Har- 






modms and Anstogiton. The second was intended 






partly to soothe the agitation for war with Persia 






by showing how impossible it was for Athens to 






contend with the great king, and partly to sketch 






a new system of trierarchical service and taxation. 


353. 




Onomarchus enters into a league with Lycophron 






and Peitholaus, the tyrants of Pherae. This 






renders him secure on the side of Thessaly. 






He also obtains some successes in Boeotia. 






Philip appears in Thessaly ; he is victorious 






over Phayllus, but so severely defeated by 






Onomarchus in two engagements, that he is 






compelled to leave Thessaly. 



132 



[353-352.] 



B.C. 

353. 



352. 



OL. 
106.4- 



107.1, 



P.immenes, the Theban, marclies to support Arta- 
bazus, in revolt against the king. He is ac 
companied along the coast by Philip. Philip 
takes Abdera, Maronea, and also Methone. 

Chares conquers Sestos. 

Dion is assassinated at Syracuse by Callippus. 

Onomarchus conquers Coronea, but, being sum 
moned again into Thessaly to aid the tyrants 
of Pherae against Philip, he is utterly 
defeated and slain on the coast of Magnesia. 
Philip takes Pherae and Pagasae, and 
occupies Magnesia, but is prevented from 
going further by the Athenians, who occupy 
Thermopylae in force. Phayllus continues 
the war ; the treasures of Delphi enable him, 
even yet, to attract followers by the prospect of 
high pay. He invades eastern Locris, and there 
falls ; his nephew Phalaecus succeeds him. 
Peace concluded between Athens and Olynthus. 
Philip returns from Thessaly to Thrace ; leagues 
himself with Cardia, Byzantium, and Perin- 
thus. Cersobleptes is compelled to accept 
terms of peace. Philip falls sick and retires 
from Thrace. 

fyceches of Dem oxthmes " For the Megalopolitans" 
"Against Timocmtes," and " Against Aristo- 
cnites" 

The Spartans, thinking the Thebans too weak to 
interfere in the Peloponnesus, are anxious to break 
up the city of Megalopolis. Envoys from Sparta 
and Megalopolis appear at Athens. Demosthenes 
supports the cause of IVfegalopolis, but in vain. 
But owing to the defeat of Onomarchus, the 
Thebans are able to invade Peloponnesus (for the 
last time) and protect the city. Timocrates had 
proposed a measure that all debtors to the state 
should be allowed to give security for their debts 
to the end of the year. The law had been hastily 
and informally passed, and was rescinded as illegal. 
Aristocrates had brought forward a measure that 
any one who attacked the life of Charideraub should 
be an outlaw in Athenian dominions. This De 
mosthenes opposed, with what result is not known. 



[351-349.] 



133 



B.O. 

351. 



OL. 

107.1. 



107-2. 



I 



350. 



107.3 



349. 



Death of Maupolus of Caria ; accession of 

Artemisia. 
Philip attacks Arybbas, king of the Molossi, his 

wife's father. 

Demosthenes' " For the Rhodians" and " First 
Philippic" 

The llhodians took advantage of the death of Mau- 
solus to apply to Athens for help m ridding them 
selves of the Canan mercenaries who maintained 
the authority of Maasolus in the island. Demo 
sthenes pleads their cause, but without result. In 
the "First Philippic " Demosthenes calls attention 
to the dangerous advances which Philip has made, 
and the unsatisfactory nature of the war, which 
has now lingered on since 357 B. c. If results are 
to be hoped for, war must be organised with 
energy. 

Plutarch of Bretria applies for assistance to 
Athens to enable him to maintain his position. 

The Athenians under Phocion in Buboea. Battle 
of Tamynae, and narrow escape of the 
Athenians. Phocion returns to Athens, but 
Zaretra falls into the bands of the enemy. 

Apollodorus proposes that the surplus funds of 
the state should be used for purposes of war. 
His proposition Is rejected as illegal, and it 
is forbidden, under pain of death, to apply in 
paying the soldiers the money which has been 
used for theatrical exhibitions. (Cf. 338 B.C.) 

Demosthenes and Midias. Midias assaulted 
Demosthenes when choregus ; for this, legal 
proceedings were taken against him, but the 
matter is allowed to drop. (The speech 
" Against Midias " was never delivered, and 
was probably written in 349 B.C.) The in 
cident shows the height to which party spirit 
had run at Athens, and the hatred Demo 
sthenes had brought upon himself for exposing 
the feeble war policy of Eubulus. 

War between PMlip and OlyntJitis, 
I 



*34 



[349-347.]' 



B.C. 

349. 



347. 



OL. 
107.3- 



107.4- 



108 i. 



In 357 B.C. Olynthus, alarmed at the fall of 
Amphipolis, wished to enter into negotiations 
with Athens, but was prevented by Philip. 
In 352, when Philip was in Thessaly, Athens 
and Olynthus concluded a peace, and again, 
in 350, Olynthus requested troops from Athens 
to maintain her frontier. Philip, now, having 
completed his preparations, calls on the Olyn- 
thians to surrender his step-brother. The 
Olynthians understand this to be equiva 
lent to a declaration of war, and appear at 
Athens, asking for assistance. 

An alliance is concluded with the Olynthians ; 
and Chares sent to their assistance with 2000 
mercenaries and 30 triremes. 

" Otynthiac Orations" of Demosthenes ; in which 
he endeavours (1) to point out the importance 
of the crisis ; (2) to rouse the Athenians to 
personal service ; (3) to exhibit the weakness 
of Philip's position ; (4) to induce the 
Athenians to apply the surplus revenues to 
military purposes. The order of the orations 
is doubtful. 

Fall of Orynthtis. 

For a time Philip had been engaged putting 
down a rising in Thessaly. Now he returns 
in person to Chalcidice and begins to press 
the cities hard ; some are taken, some re 
ceive him. The Olynthians send twice to 
Athens for help; but the Athenians defer 
real assistance till too late. Olynthus and 
thirty-two confederate cities are destroyed, 
the inhabitants being sold into slavery. 

Philip celebrates Olympic games in Macedonia* 

Attempt to unite the Greeks against Philip. 
Aeschines in Peloponnesus. The attempt fails. 

JSf. 



jotiations for peace between Athens and 
Philip. 

These were at first informal, carried on by private 
persons who had access to Philip. They 



[347-346.] 



B.C. 

347. 



347- 
323. 

346. 



01 
108.1. 



108.2. 



108.3. 



were assisted by tlie conduct of the Phocians, 
who refused to allow the Athenians to enter 
the pass of Thermopylae. Finally, Philocrates 
proposes (Eubulus supporting him) that ten 
ambassadors be sent to Philip to treat. 

The Thebans request Philip's aid against the 
Phocians, who are still commanded by 
Phalaecus. The Phocians send for assistance 
to Athens, which is immediately granted, but 
when the Athenian forces arrive, Phalaecus, 
who holds the pass of Thermopylae, refuses 
to admit them. 

Ten talents are raised annually by a property tax 
for the fleet, etc., at Athens. 

Tlie Peace of PMlocrates. Destruction of the 
Phocians, and end of tlie Sacred War. 

The envoys return from Philip to Athens with a letter. 
He demands that Halus and the Phocians shall "be 
excluded from the list of Athenian allies. The 
question debated on 18th and 19th Elaphebolion. 
Demosthenes opposes it. But the Macedonian 
envoys refuse to ratify the peace without the 
disputed clause. Aeschines induces the Athenians 
to give way ; the oaths are taken at Athens ; an 
embassy is despatched to take the oaths from 
Philip and his allies. Great delay. Philip takes 
the oaths at Pella ; his allies at Pherae. The 
embassy returns to Athens on Scirophorion 13th, 
when Philip is close upon Thermopylae. Demo 
sthenes urges that a force be sent to the pass. 
Aeschines soothes all apprehension and has a decree 
passed that the Phocians be renounced as allies if 
they refuse to give up the temple. Phalaecus 
makes his terms with Philip, who thus "becomes 
master of the pass and Phocis. The Amphictyonic 
Council decrees the destruction of Phocis as a 
Grecian State. 

Philip chosen to preside over the Pythian games. 

Demosthenes, "On the Peace" urges the Athenians 
to acquiesce in the peace now that it is made ; 
the conduct of the Amphictyonic Council in 
giving up Phocis to Philip for destruction 
was not worth a contest when so much had 
been abandoned. 



136 



[345-341] 



B.C. 

345. 



OL. 
108.3. 



108.4. 



344. 



Return of Dionysius II. to Syracuse, 

Great prosperity of Athens at this time. New dock- 
houses are erected in the Peiraeus under the 
superintendence of Philon, and the fleet raised 
to 300 triremes (Dem. Defals. leg. p. 369). 

On the proposal of Demophilus the list of 
citizens is revised and large numbers (5000 
or more) are struck off the roll. 

New arrangements appear to have been made 
in the management of the assembly. Hitherto 
at meetings nine proedri had presided, chosen 
"by lot, by the chairman of the prytanies from 
the nine tribes, excluding his own. From 
these the chairman of the assembly was 
chosen. Now a " presiding tribe " was added 
to the proedri and prytanies, which gathered 
round the bema 3 and if necessary kept order. 

Aeschims "Against Timarchus" After the em 
bassy to take the oaths (346), Demosthenes had 
indicted Aeschines for misconduct, Timarchus 
supporting the indictment. Aeschines, to 
gain time, attacks Timarchus for his scan 
dalous life. Timarchus loses all civil rights. 

Philip attacks the Illyrians, Dardanians, and 
Triballi. Negotiations about the Chersonese 
and Thracian towns still go on between 
Athens and Philip. 

The orators Lycurgus and Hyperides form a strong 
anti-Macedonian party with Demosthenes. 
They are joined by Diotimus, Nausicles, 
Polyeuctus, and others. Eubulus and Phocion 
desire peace at any price. Aeschines, Deniades 3 
and Philocrates head the Macedonian party. 

establishes oligarchical government inThes- 
sa. y by means of a decarchy. Then he passes 
into Peloponnesus to assist Argos and Messene 
against Sparta. The Athenians interfere. De 
mosthenes himself visits both cities and urges 
them against friendship with Philip. Philip 
sends ambassadors to theAthenians to complain. 



[344-343.] 



137 



B.C. 

344. 



343. 



OL. 

109.1. 



109.2. 



" Second Philippio " of Demosthenes, in which he 
proposes a reply to Philip, a written docu 
ment, which has not come down, to us, and 
shows the real relations of Philip to Athens. 

Timoleon leaves Corinth for Syracuse and, in a 
short time, Dionysius agrees to quit Ortygia ; 
he is brought to Corinth. 

Hyperides attacks Philocrates for his conduct in 
regard to Macedon ; Philocrates goes into 
exile, and in his absence is condemned to death. 

The remnant of the mercenaries of Phalaecus, 
who perished in an attempt to take Cydonia 
in Crete, take service with some Elean exiles, 
whom they assist to return home. The 
attempt is unsuccessful. The mercenaries 
who are taken captive are partly sold and 
partly massacred (Diod. xvi. 61-63). 

Philip makes an attempt upon Megara, which 
fails. Megara enters into alliance with 
Athens. Nisaea Is fortified and the long 
walls restored. 

The Delians attempt to set aside the claim of the 
Athenians to the temple of Apollo in the 
island. The question referred to the Amphic- 
tyonic Council. Aeschines, who had been 
chosen to represent Athens, is set aside, and 
Hyperides is sent in his place. The Athenians 
maintain their claim. (Spring.) 

Philip sends Python to Athens to attack the 
anti-Macedonian party. In return Hegesippus 
is sent to Philip to demand the restitution of 
Halonnesus, and the Thracian towns, and to fix 
the limits of the Chersonese. Philip receives 
him with marked discourtesy. (Summer.) 

The case of misconduct in the Legation (346). 
Demosthenes and Aeschines. Aeschines is 
acquitted by a small majority (thirty votes). 
Philip in E-uboea. He establishes his power there 
by means of tyrants- -Clitarchus at Eretria. 



138 



[343-341,] 



B.G. 

343. 



342. 



341. 



OL. 

109.2. 



109.3. 



109.4. 



Antiphanes, comic poet. Period of Middle 



Jointer. Philip in Epirus, where he establishes 
Alexander on the throne in the room of his 
uncle Arybbas. From Epirus he marches 
on Ambracia, and threatens Acarnania and 
Leucas, but without effect, for the Athenians 
rouse the Peloponnesians to a sense of the 
danger (Demosthenes, Polyeuctus, and Hege- 
sippus sent as ambassadors) and also send 
forces to Acarnania to support Arybbas, who 
is hospitably received at Athens. 

Philip returns home through Thessaly, where he 
establishes tetrarchies, under his own control. 

He resumes n egotiations with Athens. His letter, 
and the speech of Hegesippus ("DeHalonneso"). 

He makes an expedition into Thrace. 

In Euboea his troops take Oreus, and establish 

Philistides there as tyrant. Alliance between 

Chalcis and Athens. 
Diopithes in the Hellespont. New settlers are 

sent from Athens to the Chersonese about 

this time or a little earlier. 
Aristotle summoned to the Macedonian court. 

Philip in Thrace. 

Difficulties arise in the Chersonese between the 
Attic cleruchs and the Cardians. Diopithes 
advances into Thrace to aid Philip's enemies ; 
Philip addresses a letter of remonstrance to 
Athens. 

Demosthenes' "DeChersoneso" and "Third Philip 
pic." In the " De Chersoneso " he urges that 
Philip, though nominally at peace, is really at 
war, so that it would be foolish to recall or 
punish Diopithes. A great danger is im 
pending, against which every precaution 
should be taken. The " Third Philippic" is 
to the same effect, but with less special refer 
ence to the Chersonese. Athens must arm if 
the freedom of Hellas is to be secured. 



[341-339.] 



139 



B.C. 

341. 



340. 



339. 



OL. 
I09. 4 . 



110.1. 



110.2, 



Attempts are made to establish a league against 
Philip. Demosthenes goes to Byzantium, 
Hyperides to Chios and Bhodes. Alliance 
between Byzantium and Athens. 

Oreus is liberated by the combined efforts of the 
Athenians, Chalcidians, and Megarians. 

Philip in Thrace. 

Embassies sent from Athens to Peloponnesus, 
and arrangements made for the league against 
Philip. The league to include Euboea, Acar- 
nania, Corinth, Achaea, Corcyra, Megara. 

Eretria liberated by the Athenians under Phocion. 
Philip marches upon the Chersonese. He be 
sieges Perinthus, and, failing to take it, in 
vests Byzantium. 

War declared upon Pnilip by the Athenians. 

Reform of the trierarchic system by Demo 
sthenes. The companies done away with, 
and rates levied according to property. ("De 
Corona," 260 /.) 

The Byzantines supported by the Athenians and 
the allies. 

Ochus reduces Egypt to submission. 

Great defeat of the Carthaginians in Sicily on the 
Crirnesus by Timoleon. 

Aeschines at the Amphictyomc assembly with 
Midias. He accuses the Amphissean Locrians 
of sacrilege. Ampnictyonic War. 

Philip raises the siege of Byzantium and marches 
into Scythia to avenge himself upon Atheas, 
who, after seeking his assistance, had rejected 
it. On his return he is attacked by the 
Triballi, and severely woun ded. Subsequently 
he is chosen to lead the Amphictyons in their 
attack on Amphissa. He defeats the Am- 
phisseans and destroys their city. Then he 
passes into Phocis, and takes possession of 
Elatea. 

Preparations for war at Athens. 



140 



[338-336.] 



B.O. 


OL. 




338. 


110.2. 


Demosthenes crowned (at the Dionysia, April). 






The " theoric fund >} applied to military purposes. 
Negotiations between Athens and Thebes. 






Lycurgus minister of finance at Athens. 






Demosthenes crowned again (at the Panathenaea). 




110.3 


Battle of Cfoaeronea. Victory of Philip. (Sep 






tember.) 






Measures for the defence of Athens : the walls 






repaired under the care of Demosthenes. 






Phocion assumes the military command. 






The Thebans capitulate and are severely treated ; 






the Cadmea is occupied by a Macedonian 






garrison. Orchonienus, Plataea, and Thespiae 






restored. 






TJie Peace of Demades between Athens and Philip. 






Athens surrenders her possessions except 






Lemnos, Imbros, and Samos ; the tribute, 






and the hegemony. She receives Oropus. 






Philip marches by Megara and Corinth into 






the Peloponnesus. In a synod at Corinth, 






he arranges the affairs of Hellas ; is chosen 






general of the Hellenic forces against Persia. 






Death of Isocrates. 


337. 




Marriage of Philip and Cleopatra. 




110.4. 


Preparations for the invasion of Persia ; Pixo- 
darus of Caria enters into an alliance with 






Philip. 






Death of Timoleon at Syracuse. 


336. 




Improvement of the fortifications of Athens, in 






which Demosthenes takes a leading part. 






Proposal of Ctesiphon to crown Demosthenes 






at the great Dionysia. Aeschines opposes. 






Assassination of PMiip at tne marriage of Ms 






daughter Cleopatra. (July,) Accession of 




1I1.I. 


Alexander. He marches in to Greece, where he 






is accepted by the Amphictyonic Council and 






by Athens. At Corinth, he is appointed leader 
of the Greeks against the Persians. The 






Hellenic cities are to be free, and autono 


i 


mous ; no despot is to be established or 



[330-334] 



B.C. 

336. 



335, 



334. 



OL. 
111.1. 



111.2. 



111.3- 



restored ; navigation is to be free and un 
impeded. These terms the Macedonians do 
not strictly observe. 

Accession of Darius Codomannus. [Oehns had been 
assassinated two years before by Bagoas, who 
raised Arses, the youngest son of Ochus, to the 
throne, but murdered him in the third year of his 
reign. He then chose Codomannus, who took the 
name of Darius.] 

Alexander in Thrace and Illyria. 

Eevolt of Thefces. The Thebans, taking advantage 
of the absence of Alexander, return from 
exile at Athens, instigate the people, and 
besiege the Macedonians in the Cadniea. 
Alexander at once marches upon Thebes and 
besieges the city, which is soon captured. 
All the inhabitants are massacred, and the 
walls razed to the ground. Alexander 
demands the surrender of the leaders of the 
anti-Macedonian party at Athens : Demo 
sthenes, Lycurgus, Polyeuctus, Moerocles, 
Ephialtes, Damon, Callisthenes, and Chari- 
demus. He is prevailed on to accept the 
banishment of Oharidemus and Ephialtes, and 
omit the rest. He returns to Pella. 

[The authorities for the history of Alexander are 
Arrian's Anabasis, Curtius, and Justinus.] 

Alexander passes into Persia. 

Battle of the Granicus, and defeat of the 
Persians under Spithri dates, satrap of Lydia, 
Arsites, viceroy of Phrygia, and Memnon. 
Asia Minor on this side of Taurus falls into 
the hands of Alexander. Sardis receives 
him. Ephesus is divided by faction ; for a 
time Memnon, on Ms retreat from the 
Grranicus, organises an opposition to Alex 
ander, but, when he approaches, Memnon 
retires to Halicarnassus. Democracy is 
established ; the revenues are given to the 
temple of Artemis, and the right of asylum 
is extended over a stadium in every direction, 



142 



[334-333.] 



B.C. 

334. 



333. 



OL. 
111.3- 



111.4. 



Tralles and Magnesia on the Maeander offer 
submission. Parmenio is sent to occupy 
them. Democracies are established every 
where in the Greek cities. Smyrna is 
rebuilt. 

Alexander at Miletus, which adheres to the Per 
sian cause owing to the proximity of the fleet. 
The town is taken by storm. The Grecian 
fleet being no match for the Persian, is dis 
banded. From Miletus, Alexander passes to 
Caria. Ada, the deposed queen, and the 
Greek cities join him, but Halicarnassus, the 
centre of Persian influence, resists, under the 
command of Memnon. After a stubborn 
resistance, the city is set on fire and aban 
doned. Alexander takes possession, and 
breaks it up into six hamlets. 

Towards winter, Alexander sends some troops 
home, and with the remainder winters in 
Lycia, at Phaselis. The Lycians retain their 
old constitution, a confederacy of twenty- 
three cities. 

Alexander in Pisidia, from whence he marches to 
Celaenae in Phrygia, and to Gordium. The 
Persian fleet achieves success in the Aegean, 
gaining Chios and Lesbos. Death of Memnon, 
the commander during the siege of Mitylene. 

Memnon's plan for acting on the defensive at Mt. 
Amanus is abandoned by Darius ; execution 
of Charidemus, the Athenian, who openly 
opposes offensive operations. The Greek 
mercenaries serving in the Persian fleet are 
recalled to join the army. 

Alexander marches from G-ordium through Paph- 
lagonia and Cappadocia to the Taurus, which 
he is allowed to pass without opposition. 
He enters Tarsus, and falls ill. On his 
recovery he marches through Issus to Myri 
andrus, when he finds thut Darius has crossed 
Mount Amanus to Issus. He returns. 



[333-331.] 



143 



B.C. 

333. 



332. 



331. 



OL. 
H1.4. 



112.1. 



Battle of Issus. Defeat and flight of Darius. 
Capture of the royal Persian women. 

Capture of Damascus with large treasure, and 
submission of Phoenicia, except Tyre and 
Gaza. 

Darius offers terms of peace, which are rejected. 

The success at Issus crushed anti-Macedonian 
efforts in Greece. Yet Agis, king of Lace- 
daemon, obtains money from the Persian 
fleet, and makes himself master of Crete, 
which, however, he is unable to hold for 
more thau two years. 

Siege of Tyre. 

The Cyprian ships join Alexander, and the 
greater part of the Phoenician : being now 
master of an efficient fleet, he is able to 
blockade Tyre by sea as well as land. After 
a siege of seven months the city is captured 
by storm. 

Darius again offers peace, but his overtures are 
rejected. 

Recovery of the Aegean by Alexander's fleet, 
which is now superior to the Persian. 

Siege of Gaza, which after two months is taken 
by storm. Cruel treatment of Batis, the com 
mander of Gaza. Alexander in Egypt, where 
he founds Alexandria, and visits the temple 
of Ammon, claiming to be the son of Zeus. 

The result of the successes of Alexander had 
been to restore to the Greek cities and islands 
a large measure of independence. The des 
pots of the island cities are now brought to 
him in Egypt ; he hands them over to their 
citizens, who, in most cases, put them to 
death. 

Alexander marches through Phoenicia to Thap- 
sacus on the Euphrates j crosses Mesopotamia, 
and fords the Tigris. He finds Darius at 
Gaugamela, thirty miles west of Arbela. 



144 



[331-320.] 



B.C. 


OL. 




331. 


112.2. 


Battle of Arfeela. Defeat and flight of Darius ; 






overthrow of the Persian empire. 






Alexander proceeds to Babylon, from thence to 






Susa, and after passing the " Susian Gates " to 






Persepolis, where he finds the royal treasures. 


330. 




He pursues Darius to Ecbatana, from whence he 






sends home the Thessalian cavalry. Then he 






follows Darius to the " Caspian Gates." Con 






spiracy against Darius, headed by Bessus : 






in spite of the efforts of Alexander to over 






take and secure him, Darius is slain. Alex 






ander at Hecatompylus : after resting there 






he subdues Hyrcania, and from thence passes 




112.3. 


into Asia and Drangiana. 






Execution of Parmenio and his son Philotas, 






on account of their supposed complicity in 






conspiracy. 






Antipater, Alexander's general in command, 






being compelled to suppress a rising in 






Thrace, withdraws troops from Greece. Agis 






heads a revolt in Peloponnesus, but he is 






quickly crushed by Antipater on his return, 






and slain. 






"Case of the Crown" at Athens. Aeschines 






had indicted Ctesiphon for proposing that 






Demosthenes should be crowned at the 






"Tragedies" (Great Dionysia) in 336. The 






case is now brought on. Aeschines, failing 






to obtain one-fifth of the votes, is fined 






1000 drachmae, and leaves Athens. 


329. 




Alexander crosses the Paropainisus (Hindoo- 






Koosh) into Bactria, thence he passes, across 






the Oxus, into Sogdiana. He captures Bessus, 






and massacres the Branchidae, in return for 






the treachery of their ancestors in the time 




112 4. 


of Xerxes. He proceeds to the Jaxartes, the 




* *"*! 


extreme northward limit of his marches. 






Foundation of Alexandria ad Jaxartem. 






Returning, he crosses the Oxus to Zaiiaspa, 






where he puts Bessus to death. 



. [328-324.] 



B.C. 

328. 



327. 



326. 



325. 



324. 



OL. 
112.4. 



113.1. 



113.2, 



113.3. 



113.4- 



114.1. 



Alexander at Marakanda (Samarcand). Further 
subjugation of Sogdiana. Murder of Cleitus. 

Complete subjugation of Sogdiana. Alexander 
proceeds to Bactra, \\ here he marries Boxana, 
daughter of the Bactrian chief, Oxyartes. 
He demands divine honours, which are op 
posed by Oallistbenes. In consequence, 
Callisthenes is shortly afterwards put to 
death. Alexander crosses the Paropaimsus 
into India. Conquest of the country between 
the Paropamisus and the Indus. 

Alexander crosses the Indus, and proceeds to the 
flydaspes ( Jelum). Battle with Porus, at the 
, crossing of the river. Poms defeated, but 
honourably treated by Alexander. He 
pushes his conquests to the Hypnasis (Sutlej), 
wliere Ms army refuses to advance further. 

Beturning to the Hydaspes, he sails down that 
river and the Indus to the Indian Ocean, 
the army marching alongside. On reaching 
the sea, Nearchns conducts the fleet from the 
Indus to the Tigris, while Alexander marches 
through Gedrosia to Carrnania, and from 
thence to Persepolis. 

Alexander continues his march to Susa, where 
the fleet joins his army. He examines into 
the conduct of the satraps during his absence, 
and punishes some. Flight of Harpalus, the 
satrap of Babylon, to Greece, with a large 
treasure. 

Alexander urges intermarriage between his Mace 
donian soldiers and Persian women, which 
causes great discontent. A number of Asiatic 
soldiers are hired and trained for service in 
the army. Hence a mutiny arises among the 
Macedonian soldiers, part of whom are dis 
banded and sent home under Oraterus. 
Alexander also prepares to enlarge his fleet. 
Death of Hephaestion. 



146 



[324-322.] 



B.C. 

324. 



323. 



322. 



OL. 
114.J. 



114.2. 



114.3. 



Harpalus comes to Athens after his flight from. 
Babylon. The Athenians refuse to accept 
las offers ; but will not surrender him to 
Antipater. They sequestrate his treasure for 
Alexander. Harpalus escapes arrest by 
flight. Demosthenes is accused of appropri 
ating part of the money of Harpaius, the sum. 
counted being less than the amount given 
out by Harpalus. Demosthenes condemned 
and fined fifty talents. He leaves Athens. 

Alexander marcnes to Babylon, and prepares for 
tne conquest of Arabia. His illness and death 
(aged thirty-two years and eight months). 

Athens, on the news of Alexander's death, claims 
to liberate the Greeks, and invites co-opera 
tion. Demosthenes is recalled. Leosthenes, 
with the confederate forces (in which Sparta 
and Boeotia are not included) marches to 
Thessaly. Lam 1 an War. He is victorious 
over Antipater, whom he drives into Lamia. 
But soon after Leosthenes is slain, and suc 
ceeded by Antiphilus. Antipater escapes. 

Antipater is joined by Oraterus with a large 
army. Battle of Crannon. End of the war. 
The confederation breaks up. Antipater ad 
vances to Thebes. Athens submits. She 
agrees to pay the whole expense of the war, 
to surrender Demosthenes and Hyperides, 
to receive a Macedonian garrison into Muny- 
chia, and disfranchise the poorer citizens 
(12,000 of whom are deported). 

Death of Demosthenes at Calauria. He poisons 
himself to escape arrest by the soldiers of 
Antipater, who has already put Hyperides to 
death. 

Death of Aristotle. 



PART III. 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF 
ATHENS AND LACEDAEMON. 

CONSTITUTION OF ATHENS. 

The Population of A ttica. 

The Athenians claimed to be " autochthonous," i.e. to have 
inhabited Attica from the beginning, undisturbed by foreign 
conquest and admixture, but it is very doubtful whether this 
ulaim can be admitted. It would rather appear that in early 
times the population of the country was composed of various 
elements, Phoenicians (at Marathon and Melite), Carians (at 
Athens), and even Thracians (at Eleusis), who were partly 
expelled and partly absorbed by Pelasgian and Ionian tribes. 

Early Forms of Combination. 

We are told that Cecrops, the first king of the country, 
united the various villages of Attica into twelve townships or 
TroXciff. This legend is so far true that in Attica, as elsewhere 
in Greece, the villages or hamlets, which were in the first 
instance unprotected by walls, and at a distance from the sea 
board, tended to unite into larger or smaller aggregates. The 
more powerful settlements compelled the less powerful in their 
immediate neighbourhood to join them (as Aphidna), while 
others combined for purposes of religious worship. Of such 
combinations in Attica we have instances in the Tetrapolis, 
a union of the four towns Marathon, Oenoe, Probalinthus, 
and Trikorythus, the Tetrakomi, and the Trikomi. 



148 CONSTITUTION OF ATHENS. 

f l!n Union of Attica. 

The first event of importance in the constitutional history of 
Attica is UK* 'union of tht, whole country round Athens as a 
centre fowmfarr/zos'). Tills is said to have been the work of 
Thmm, who either persuaded or compelled the separate towns 
to give up their independence, and made Athens the ruling 
city. As Theseus is reptrded in legend as a foreigner, we may 
perhaps conclude that tins union was brought about by foreign 
conquest. The union was commemorated by the festival of 
the Synoccia. 

The Tribes. 

With this union of the whole of Attica is sometimes con 
nected the establishment of the four tribes, the Geleontes, 
Hophtes, Ar gadcs, and Aegicorets, into which the whole popu 
lation was divided. These tribes were again divided into 
twelve phratries (three in each tribe), each of which contained 
thirty families f yevrj}. The precise nature of this arrangement 
is disputed. The difficulties cannot be satisfactorily removed, 
but it seems reasonable to conclude : 

(1) That the tribes did not denote occupations in Attica. 

(2) That they did not mark local divisions of the country. 
In all probability they were very ancient divisions of the 

Ionic people, which were introduced into Attica when the 
country was united under Ionic influence. And as it was 
impossible in eurly times to classify the nation on any othei 
basis but that of supposed gentile and tribal connection, thif 
division, with the development of phratries and gentes, was 
adopted in order to bring the population of Attica into some 
kind of" arrangement. 

Glasses. 

Another division of the population separated them into 
Eupatrids, Gtowori, and Demiurgi, of whom the first were 
the nobility, the second the yeomen and farmers (who farmed 



CONSTITUTION OF ATHENS. 149 

their own land, or that of the Eupatrids), the third the artisans 
or labourers. Though the tribes included all these classes, the 
administration and government of the tribes, phratries, and 
families were in the hands of the Eupatrids. The leaders of 
the tribes were known as Phylobasileis. The Geomori and 
Demiurgi can have had nothing more than a very subordinate 
place in the political constitution. 

The Monarchy. 

From the earliest times Attica was governed by kings. But 
about the date of the Dorian migration into the Peloponnesus 
an important change took place in the succession. Exiles 
from PyluSy who had fled to Attica for refuge, attained to the 
throne by their bravery and devotion in defending the country 
from invasion. 

In the reign of Melanthus, the first of these Pylian kings, 
the festival of the Apaturia is said to have been introduced. 
As participation in this* festival is a special mark of Ionian 
descent, we may suppose that Attica was by this time entirely 
under Ionian influence. The self-sacrifice of Codrus, the son 
of Melanthus, who by his death delivered Athens from the 
attack of the Dorians, secured for his family the possession of 
the throne. They were known as the Medontidae from Medon, 
the 5on and successor of Codrus. 

Modification of the Royal Power. 

It seems that from the accession of the Medontidae the 
royal power underwent a series of modifications. In the first 
place the kings became archons, to some extent responsible 
to or dependent on the order of the Eupatrids. Then in 
the year 752 the archonship was no longer tenable for life, 
but for ten years only, 1 and in 712 it was opened to all 

1 Pans. iv. 5. 10. 'Adtfvgcrt. S otf/c fjcrdv TTOJ r6re (01. 9. 2.) ol r$ 
K^ptp /car' friavrbv d*/>%oj>rcs. rods yap a/jrb MeXdvdov, KCL\ovfj.voiJ$ 8 
WledovrtSas, /car' dp%ds fiv d^e/Aopro 6 dijfj.o$ TTJS ^owfas TO TroAi/, 
Kal forl fiacriKetas yaer^crr^a-ai' es apx^ birG$Owow t Sarepov 8 fcai 
irpo$<r/jdcu> erQv Stica eirolijaav atirois TIJS d/>x^y. 

K 



1 50 CONS T1TUTION OF A THENS. 

the ISupatrids. Finally in 683 the decennial arehous were 
abolished, and in their place were chosen nine annual archons. 
Of these the first was known as the Archon, the second as the 
Basileus, in which capacity he discharged the religious func 
tions of the earlier kings, and the third as the Polemarch, or 
leader of the army. The remaining six were Thesmothetae or 
law-givers, i.e. they were occupied with the law. These officers 
formed a board, with a special place of meeting, the Prytaneum, 
in which they were allowed maintenance at the public cost. 
The collection of the sums necessary for their maintenance was 
perhaps managed "by the Colaeretae, who were thus the eatliest 
financial officers at Athens. 

The NaveraHes. 

This meagre record is all that we really know of the con 
stitutional changes at Athens down to the times of Draco, 
who in 621 B.C. was commissioned to write down the laws of 
Athens. But we may venture to assume that there was at 
Athens a council of the Eupatrids, for without this it is 
difficult to see what is meant by the responsibility of the 
archon. Out of this council in later times the Senate of the 
Areopagus may have been formed. From the fact that even in 
the seventh century B.C., Athens engaged in war with Megara 
for the possession of Salamis, it is probable that at an early 
time arrangements had been made for the maintenance of a fleet. 
For this purpose, the whole country was divided into forty-eight 
sections called Naiwraries, each of which was culled upon to 
provide a ship. The Naucraries were united into Trittyes, of 
which there were twelve ; of the Trittyes three were allotted 
to each tribe. As the burden which fell upon each ISTaucraria 
was equal, we may presume that the tribes by this time at 
least represented a tolerably equal division of the inhabitants 
In point of wealth. In each Naucraria there was a president 
or pryteneus. These officers, forty-eight in number, formed a 
board in addition to the nine archons. It is also supposed 



CONSTITUTION OF A THENS. 1 5 1 

that each Naucraria, in addition to a ship, furnished two horse 
men for the service of the state. If this be true, the navy of 
Athens before the time of Solon amounted to forty-eight 
vessels, and the cavalry to ninety-six mounted soldiers. 

The Laws of Draco. 

Towards the end of the seventh century factions began 
to arise at Athens. The inhabitants of the plains (Pedieis), 
who were the rich land-owners, the mountaineers (Diacrii), 
who were poorer, and lived by their herds and flock and the 
men of the shore (Paralii), appear as three parties at variance 
with each other. An obscure and mutilated inscription l seems 
to indicate that the nobility felt themselves unable to resist 
the pressure brought to bear upon them by the tillers of the 
soil, so that for a time four archons only were chosen by the 
Eupatrids, three by those who lived away from Athens in the 
country, and two by the Demiurgi. Archons so elected are 
said to have held office in the year after Damasias (i.e. in 638 
B.C.). But whatever the concession was, it was quickly can 
celled. The constitution remained as before, till the beginning 
of a change was brought about by the publication of the Laws 
of Draco in 621 B.C. 

Of these laws we know that they were regarded as extremely 
severe, most offences being punishable with death. But in his 
laws on homicide, the part of the code which was preserved in 
force at Athens, Draco seems to have mitigated the law by 
allowing circumstances to be taken into consideration which 
reduced murder to justifiable homicide, and protecting from 
the violence of the avenger any one who, being banished for 
homicide, observed strictly the regulations imposed upon him. 
He also altered the court which pronounced sentence, by supple 
menting the old Basileis i.e. the archon Basileus and the four 
Phylobasileis with a body of fifty-one Ephetae or "Keferees," 



i 



The inscription is on a papyrus, at Berlin. It is given in Gilbert's 
Handbuch der Onechischen StualsaUerthwmer, pp. 123, 124, 



1 5 2 CONSTITUTION OF A THENS. 

with whom the final decision lay. These Ephetae sat at 
different places according to the nature of the offence. If the 
offence was wilful and premeditated, the court sat at the 
Areopagus ; if accidental, at the Palladium, the temple of 
Athena on the Ilissus ; if justifiable, at the Delphinium, or 
temple of Apollo, who had pleaded justification even in the 
case of Orestes. For the number of these Ephetae no satis 
factory reason has been given. 

The Attempt of Cylon. 

The publication of the laws was probably made in order 
to satisfy the discontent of the lower orders of the people. 
The same cause may have led Cylon to embark on Ms attempt 
to establish a " tyranny " at Athens. He had moreover the 
example of his father-in-law, Theagenes of Megara, to stimu 
late him. In one of the Olympic years 620, 616, 612 (we can 
hardly decide which, but 620 is most probable), he seized the 
Acropolis, and attempted to hold it with the assistance of Ms 
friends. He expected, no doubt, that the mass of the people 
would join him, but, on the contrary, they flocked from the 
country to besiege him. Hunger compelled him to capitulate, 
and, though he escaped, numbers of his adherents were put to 
death some in a sacrilegious manner at the altars of the 
gods and after a promise of safety had been given. Hence 
the Alcmaeonidae, who were held to be responsible for the 
slaughter, were known as the " accursed." 

It is remarkable as a proof of the uncertainty of the early 
history of Athens, that Herodotus and Thucydides give dis 
crepant accounts of this affair. Herodotus speaks of the 
prytanies of the naucraries as the important executive power 
in Athens at the time ; Thucydides distinctly asserts that the 
nine archons " managed most of the public business " (Hdt. 
v. 71, Thuc. i. 126). 

The guilt of the murder of these conspirators, combined with 
the discontent of the people, rendered the condition of Athens 



CONSTITUTION OF A THENS. 1 53 

more miserable than ever. To aUay the first, Epimenides, a 
seer of Crete, who was considered to "be of more than human 
origin } was summoned to Athens. By expiations and purifica 
tions, which were within the reach of all, he soothed the terrified 
spirits of the inhabitants. But the social misery required 
stronger remedies. It arose principally from the severe load 
of debt, and the high rate of interest. Men who had once 
borrowed became unable to extricate themselves ; their obliga 
tions increased until not only their property passed into the 
hands of their creditors, but also their liberty, and that of their 
children. Thus native Athenians became slaves on the estates 
of their masters, and were even sold out of the country. In 
order to get rid of a state of affairs which was felt to be intoler 
able, Solon, the son of Execesstides, a man of noble birth, but 
occupied in mercantile pursuits, was called upon to mediate 
between the two parties, 595 B.C. 

The Seisachtheia of Solon. 

Solon adopted the extreme measure of a cancelling of 
debts. All money paid in interest was to be deducted from 
the principal sum which had been borrowed, and all debts 
secured upon the land or person of the debtor were cancelled. 
This at once restored the debtors to freedom and removed 
from the lands the stones which recorded the sums borrowed 
upon them. In order, it is said, to prevent this measure 
from pressing too heavily upon those who had money due to 
them, Solon also introduced a change of the coinage reducing 
the weight of the drachma by about 38 per cent., so that 73 
of the old drachmas weighed as much as 100 of the new. 
Those therefore who had money to pay their debts i.e. the 
somewhat richer classes, who were not reduced to borrowing 
on property or personal securitywere able to pay them in 
the new coin instead of the old, and thus escaped the payment 
of about a third of the sum. At the same time those who 
received the money had a sum as large in coin as if they had 



1 54 CONSTITUTION OF A THENS. 

received payment under the old standard. Those also who 
were not in debt, and perhaps were creditors of others, found 
their means increased "by this alteration at the time when 
they were called upon to sacrifice what was due to them from 
indigent debtors. For the future it was illegal that any man 
should accept the person of the debtor as security for money 
lent. These measures, though at first received with dis 
content, were fuund effective in removing the evils, and in 
consequence increased the influence of Solon. He was now 
elected archon, and charged with the far more important duty 
of reforming and reconstructing the constitution of Athens. 
(594.) 

The Constitution of Solon. 
(A.) Divisions of the people, 

The people were divided into four classes, according to 
their wealth : 

(1) Pentecosiomdimni } possessing not less than 500 measures 

of wheat (or wine and oil). 

(2) Hippeis, , . do. 300 measures do. 

(3) Zeugitae, . . do. 200 measures do. 

(4) Thetes, possessing less than 200 measures do. 

As this classification rests on the produce of landed property 
only, those who did not possess land, however wealthy in other 
respects, fell into the fourth class. 

From the first class only were chosen the highest officers of 
state. From the first and second classes were chosen the 
cavalry. From the first three classes were chosen the hoplites 
or heavy-armed soldiers. 

The members of the fourth class had a right to vote at the 
General Assembly, and to take part in trials by jury. They 
might also be called upon to serve as light-armed soldiers in 
the battle-field, or to man the fleet. 

(&.} Political Assemblies. 
(1) The Hcchsia, or General Assembly of the whole body of 



CONSTITUTION OF ATHENS. 155 

Athenian citizens over twenty years of age. Nothing could 
be brought before this Assembly which had not been previously 
discussed by the Senate of Four Hundred. How often, or 
when the Assembly was summoned, we do not know. 

(2) The Council of Four Hundred, composed of a hundred 
from each of the four tribes. This council may have taken 
the place of the board of the Prytanies of the RTaucraries. 
It prepared matters for the General Assembly, and no doubt 
decided many things upon its own authority. 

(G.) Law and Justice. 

The nine archons were the chief administrators of the law, 
but there was also a Heliaea, or law-court before which cases 
were brought, when the authority of the archons was insufficient, 
or, perhaps, when it was contested. 

Matters of homicide were decided by the Oouncil of the 
Areopagus, with the assistance of the Uphetae, but the council 
was enlarged and remodelled. The nine archons, after their 
year of office, passed into it, and there remained for life. As 
the age qualifying for the archonship was thirty years, many 
men were members of the council for a great number of years, 
and as nine were added each year, the total would be large. 
This council was now supreme controller of the manners and 
discipline of the state, and the behaviour of the public officers. 
Under the Solonian constitution, no one received pay for 
attendance at the Assembly, or the Council, or the Heliaea. 

Tyranny of Peisistratus. 

The constitution of Solon was, after a time, followed by 
renewed factions, owing to which Peisistratus was enabled to 
make himself tyrant of Athens. After being twice expelled, 
he succeeded in firmly establishing his power, which he be 
queathed to his son Hippias. The government of Peisistratus 
is said to have been mild and equitable, in the first instance 
(Hdt. i. 59 : ovre TIJJLCIS TCLS covcras a-vvrapd^as ovrc $ecr/wa 



r 56 CONS TITUTION OF A THENS. 



a?, cVi re roten KarecrTe&cri ei/e/Lte rriv 7roAti> 
KO\O>S re KOL fu). Afterwards he found it necessary to support 
his power by a large bodyguard (Hdt. i. 64). His tyranny 
was highly distasteful to men of power and eminence, so that 
Miltiades preferred to leave the city and dwell in the Cher 
sonese (Hdt. vi. 35). The rule of the sons of Peisistratus was 
more severe, specially after the death of Hipparchus in 514 
(Hdt. v. 55). The whole result was disastrous to the energy 
and union of the people. Hippias was expelled in 510 B.C., 
with the help of the Lacedaemonians, and after some party 
quarrels between Cleisthenes, the leader of the Alcmaeonid 
family, and Ibagoras, Cleisthenes expelled his opponents, and 
established a more democratic form of constitution. 

Constitution of Cleisthenes. 

(1) Eemoving the old division into four tribes, he divided the 
people into ten tribes, and a hundred demes, allotting ten demes 
to a tribe. In some cases the demes in the same tribe were 
not contiguous, to prevent local union. 

(2) He raised the Coimcil from 400 to 500, i.e. fifty from 
each tribe, and probably increased the number of the officers 
on various boards to ten, 1 i.e. one for each tribe. 

(3) He introduced the plan of ostracism, by which the 
people were enabled to get rid of a dangerous citizen, if 6000 
votes were given against him in the Assembly. 

It is possible that Cleisthenes introduced the system of 
electing officers by lot ; at any rate, this system would seem to 
have been in use at the time of the battle of Marathon. 

This form of constitution gave great encouragement to the 
people, who showed themselves worthy of their freedom in the 
Persian war. 



i For instance, we find ten generals at the battle of Marathon, which 
denotes a change from the old system under which the army was 
COP trolled by the archon polemarch. 



CONS TITUTION OF A THENS. 1 5 7 

Changes after the Persian War. 

(1) On the motion of Aristides, the highest offices were 
thrown open to all the Solonian classes. 

(2) Pay was introduced, first in the Heliaea, and secondly 
in the Assembly, the sum. being gradually increased. The 
members of the Council were also paid (see Thuc. viii. 69). 

(3) The authority of the Areopagus was much curtailed. 
By these means the Athenian constitution became an 

extreme form of Democracy, in which the people were sovereign. 
The important check upon their action which still remained in 
force was the rule that every measure brought before the 
Assembly must have been previously discussed in the Council 
The importance of the Law Courts greatly increased, the jury 
being paid, and the allies in the Delian Confederacy com 
pelled to bring their suits to Athens. 

Changes after the Sicilian Expedition. 
This great disaster caused a party among the Athenians to 
attempt some reforms, in the hope of restricting the extreme 
form of Democracy 

(1) A body of Probouli was established 413 B.C. (Thuc. 
viii. 1). 

(2) On the proposal of Peisander and Antiphon, 400 men are 
chosen to manage the state, the Council of Five Hundred is 
removed, the Assembly restricted to 5000 men. No one is to 
receive pay except the soldiers (Thuc. viii. 67) 411 B.a 

This form of constitution continued but a few months. 

(3.) The 400 are removed, and 5000 citizens, able to 
provide themselves with armour, are chosen to form the 
Assembly and manage the state. New laws are passed, the 
government being wisely and equitably administered (Thuc. 
viii. 97.) 

(4) The moderate form of government is set aside and 
complete democracy is restored, as before 411 B.C., and, finally, 
after the capture of Athens by Sparta, the Thirty Tyrants are 



r 5 3 CONSTITUTION OF A THENS. 

established. Though intended to remodel the constitution, 
they merely governed at their own caprice, putting to death 
all who appeared in any way likely to oppose their action. 

(5) Owing to the heroism of Thrasybulus and a band of 
exiles the Thirty Tyrants were expelled, and the ancient con 
stitution restored (403 B.C.). The laws were revised ; the 
authority of the Areopagus restored ; and an amnesty provided 
for all Athenians except the Thirty Tyrants and the Committee 
of Ten, who, being chosen to administer the state immediately 
after their expulsion, had proved little better than the Thirty 
Tyrants themselves. 

From this time the Athenian constitution remained in form 
the same. The people became more and more disinclined to 
undertake public burdens ; above all, they allowed their battles 
to be fought for them by mercenary troops. For this reason, 
added to the ineradicable evil of disunion, which prevented the 
Greeks from forming any satisfactory form of national league, 
they fell an easy prey to the power of Macedon. 

Final Form of the Constitution. 
(A.} The Council of Five Hundred, 

These were chosen by lot, from all classes of the citizens who 
possessed full rights and were over thirty years of age. They 
received as payment a drachma per diem, and were re-eligible. 
For each place two candidates were taken by lot ; every candi 
date who failed to pass the examination (&o/a/m<n'a) was rejected, 
and the second in the list took his place. They held office for 
a year, at the conclusion of which it was customary for the 
Assembly to decree a crown to the Council. 

Their duties consisted in : 

(a.) Preparing measures for discussion in the Assembly, 
where nothing could be discussed except on their initiation. 

(&.) Managing the revenues of the state. 

(c.) Superintending the building of sbips, and other matters 
in connection with the navy. 



CONSTITUTION OF A THENS. 1 59 

(cl) Superintending the cavalry. 

(e.) Examining the candidates for the office of archon. 

(/.) They had also a certain amount of judicial power, which 
enabled them to receive complaints and inflict fines up to the 
amount of fifty drachmae. 

The Council met daily, but, to avoid the inconvenience of 
keeping together 500 men, it was divided by tribes ; the fifty 
men (rrpvTaveis) from each of the ten tribes remaining in office 
for a tenth part of a year (npvraveia). These prytanies lived 
at the public expense in the prytaneum (Tholus), during their 
term of office. 

The fifty prytanies of each tribe and the term of their office 
were again subdivided, ten prytanies being in office for seven 
days, who were known as TrpoeSpot, and each day one of the 
proedri was chosen as epistates. But with these proedri sat 
nine others, one from each of the nine tribes, who were also 
known as proedri. 

Note (1) The Attic year ordinarily consisted of 354 days, which 
gives 35 days for six prytanies and 36 for four. But in the years 
when there was an intercalary month, the length of the prytanies 
became 38 and 39 days. 

Note (2). At a later time (see 345 B.C.) one of the tribes was allotted 
to support the prytanies in the Assemblies. This is the TrpoedpetioiHra 
0uA^. 

(#.) The Assembly. 

The Assembly consisted of all genuine Athenians of more 
than twenty years of age. 

Meetings were of two kinds. 

(a.) The regular meetings (xvpuu), of which there were four 
in each prytany. 

(6.) The extraordinary meetings (crvyKXijroi), convened for the 
despatch of some special business. 

The place of meeting was originally the market-place ; then 
the Pnyx ; at times the people met in the Theatre, or even 
outside Athens. The prytanies, or, on extraordinary occasions, 
the generals, summoned the meetings. Every Athenian attend- 



160 CONSTITUTION OF ATHENS. 

ing received a ticket xvhich enabled him to receive from the 
Thesmothetae the obol (and finally three obols) for attendance. 
The business of the meeting was introduced by one of the 
prytanies or proedri, and sometimes by one of the generals. 
The citi2ens were called on to speak in order of age. Votes 
were given either by show of hands (^eiporomz/, ^etporoi//a) or 
by ballot, the former being the usual method. When a decree 
was proposed, and even when it had been passed, its further 
progress could be stopped if any citizen affirmed on oath that 
he would indict the proposer for bringing forward an illegal 
measure. (In this manner Aeschines checked the proposal of 
Ctesiphon to crown Demosthenes in 337 B.C.) In cases which 
involved ostracism, banishment, and the like, the ballot was 
always used, and not less than 6000 votes were required to 
make the decision effective. The meeting was put off if any 
unfavourable sign were noticed, rain, thunder, and the like 



Legislative Powers of the Assembly. 

An ordinary decree of the Assembly was a 
is quite different from a vopos. Legislation, i.e. the manage 
ment of the laws, was thus arranged : 

In the first meeting of each year the question was put 
whether the old laws were to be retained or any change made, 
the Thesmothetae having meanwhile revised the laws, and 
exhibited on tablets in a public place any which seemed to be 
contradictory or unsatisfactory. Beside these were hung the 
laws which it was proposed to add to the statute-book. In 
the third meeting 1000 Nomothetae were selected from the jurors 
of the year (i.e. men over thirty years of age, who had taken the 
HeHastic oath). Before these the case of the laws was argued, 
speakers being chosen to support the old laws, and the pro 
posers advocating the new. The laws which won the most 
votes were retained or adopted. In later times this strict 
procedure was in part abandoned, and laws were passed much 
in the same manner as decrees. 



CONSTITUTION OF A THENS. 161 

Mective Functions. 

With the Assembly also rested the election of those magis 
trates who were not chosen by lot. This took place OB the 
apx^P 60 """? or election days. Moreover, on the first meeting 
in every prytany, the people were asked whether they 
wished the existing officers to he continued in office or not 



Judicial Functions. 

Before the Assembly were tried the cases which either 
involved danger to those who brought them forward or were 
of special importance. Thus ju^o-ei?, or " informations," were 
laid before the people. A special form of accusation was the 
eicray-yeXia, which also took place before the Assembly, and the 
Trpo/SoXi), by which an injured person attempted to secure 
popular favour on his side (as Demosthenes in his suit against 
Midias). Ostracism could only take place in the Assembly. 

The Assembly was the supreme authority of the state. Its 
decision was final on all matters of war and peace, on. the 
nomination of generals, the destination of armies and fleets, the 
application of the public funds, the honours to be decreed to 
citizens or foreigners. Though it had no power of initiative, 
it alone had the power of ratification and final decision. 

(0.) The Executive. 

The executive officers at Athens were very numerous. Those 
who occupied places requiring special knowledge were chosen 
by show of hands, not by lot. Before entering office, they had 
to pass an examination as to birth and character (oW/iao-m)^ 
arid those who failed lost their rights as citizens. / At the end 
of office each had to give in an account of any money which 
he had received from the public, or to state that he had not 
received any (eiftfwcu). 

The action of the officers was limited : (1) by the short 
tenure of office, and the accounts to be given in at the end ; 
(2) by the suspension which might be pronounced in any 



1 62 CONSTITUTION OF A THENS. 

prytany during the year of office ; (3) by the division of 
authority among boards, usually of ten ; (4) by the constant 
intervention of the Assembly by decrees, etc. Nor were the 
officers treated with much respect, or their wishes and views 
consulted. 

i The principal officers at Athens were : 
(a.) Judicial. 

The Nine Archons, of whom : 

The Archon was engaged chiefly with matters of 

family law, inheritance, adoption, etc. 
The Basileus with matters of homicide, etc. 
The Polemarch with matters affecting foreigners. 
The Six Thesmothetae with cases not falling to 

the other three. 

The Eleven, who formed as it were the criminal police. 
The Astynomi, who took charge of the city, public 

morals^ etc. * - - - 

The Agoranomi, who superintended the markets. 
The Metronomi, or superintendents of weights and 

measures. 

The Sitophylaces, who regulated the prices of corn, etc. 
(&.) Financial. 

The Poletae, who superintended the leasing of public 

property. 

(w 5h,PractoreSj who got in fines, etc. , ,, 
The Apodectae, or receivers-general of public funds. 
The Colacretae, who supplied funds to the Prytaneum. 
The treasurers of the Goddess (Athena) who kept 

accounts of the public treasuiy. 
s The Minister of Finance, 6 eVi r to/c^o-a. 
(c.) Military* 

(a.) Strategi and Taxiarchi. 
(6.) Hipparchi and Phylarchi (officers of cavalry). 
The generals were also supreme over the fleet, which 
was, however, supplied by the system of trierarchies. 



CONSTITUTION OF ATHENS. 163 

( D. ) The A dministration of Law. 

The enactment of laws, as we have seen, was the business of 
the Assembly ; their administration was carried out by the 
Heliaea or jiny } the Diaetetae or arbitrators, the Areopagus, 
and the Eplietae. To an insignificant extent the Council of 
500 and the Archons possessed judicial powers. 

(#.) The Heliaea. This is one of the most remarkable 
institutions of Athens. Each year the nine Archons selected 
by lot, from the number of those who presented themselves for 
the office, six thousand men, i.e. six hundred from each tribe, 
as jurors. The qualification for the ofiice was that a man should 
be an Athenian citizen, and more than thirty years of age. Of 
the 6,000, 5,000 were distributed into ten companies of 500 
each, the remaining thousand being retained as a supplementary 
body, to fill up deficiencies. On his election every juror took 
the " Heliastic " oath, and received a tablet marked with his 
own name, with the symbols of the owl and Gorgon's head, and 
with the letter of the company to which he belonged. When 
their services were needed, they were assembled by the 
Thesmothetae in the market-place, and lots were cast to 
determine in what law-court (^tKao-TrjpLov^ and under what 
officer each man should serve. The numbers allotted to try a 
case differed, but care was taken that in no case should there 
be an even number. When the lots were over, each juryman 
received a staff marked with the colour and the letter of the 
court in which he was to serve. On entering the court he 
received a ticket, which, when he left, he presented to the 
Oolacretae, from whom he received his pay. The courts were 
presided over by the Archons. 

(b.) The Arbitrators were a number of citizens selected 
equally from each tribe by lot. They took the same oath as 
the jurors, but were not less than fifty years of age. They 
could decide suits, even on appeal from the jurors : at the end 
of the year they had to give in an account of their ofiice. 
Even in the year any one who considered thufc they had acted 



164 CONSTrTUTTON OF A THENS. 

unjustly was at liberty to bring an impeachraent (eto-ayyeXict) 
against them. Distinct from these were the Arbitrators, who 
went round the country inquiring into and deciding cases of 
assault and the like. 

Before being brought before the Heliaea, or the Arbitrators, 
a complaint was investigated by one of the Archons, according 
to the nature of the case, who decided whether it was genuine, 
took the depositions, etc., and arranged for the trial before the 
jurors in the proper court. 

(<;.) From the time of Solon all cases of wilful murder, 
poisoning, wounding with intent, and arson, were tried before 
the court of the Areopagus. The trial was held in the open 
air, the King Archon presiding. Advocates were not allowed ; 
the accuser and accused spoke on oath, two days being allowed 
for the statement of the case and the reply. On the third day, 
the votes were given by ballot. If the votes were equal, the 
accused was acquitted. The punishment of murder was death : 
of intent, banishment from the country ; but the accused might 
retire from the trial after the first day and leave the country. 

(d.) The process before the JSphetae was much the same as 
that before the Areopagus. But these judges, who were fifty- 
one in number, did not, at least after Solon's time, sit on the 
Areopagus, or judge cases of wilful murder. They sat at the 
Delphinium, or Palladium, or Phreattys, as the case might be, 
to judge offences of homicide which fell short of wilful murder. 
At the Phreattys, which was a place on the sea-shore, the 
Ephetae heard the cases of those who, being under sentence 
of bauishment fox homicide, wished to plead their defence. 
As these were forbidden the country, they were allowed to 
approach the shore in a boat, where the Ephetae met them. 

[For details of the constitution of Athens in the 4th century 
B.C., see 'A&T)vaL(av TloXire/a, cc. XL.il. to end.] 



CONSTITUTION OF A TffENS 165 

The account given in the treatise On the Constitution of 
Athens ascribed to Aristotle, of the early history of that city 
differs in many respects from the preceding sketch. Whether 
it rests on a surer foundation or not we cannot tell ; a brief 
analysis of it now forms a necessary part of Athenian consti 
tutional history. 

(i) The city, we are told, was at first governed by a king ; 
when the monarchs became unequal to their duties, in war 
especially, a Polemarch was elected, and the king's power 
curtailed. These were the first two "archons"; subsequently 
a third the " archon " was added, who in time became the 
most important of the three. These archons were originally 
elected for life ; afterwards for ten years ; finally for one year 
only. When they had become annual, long after their 
creation, six thesmothetae were added, to write up the 
Thesmia (ordinances), and prevent any infringement of them. 
They had the power of deciding suits at law. Beside these 
stood the Council of the Areopagus, which was the chief 
power in the state. Birth and wealth were the necessary 
qualifications of the archons, who were chosen by the Council 
of the Areopagus ; and the Council was itself composed of 
those who had served the office of archon. 

(ii) Under Draco's Constitution the franchise was given to 
those who could furnish themselves with weapons. These 
were the citizens who met in the Assembly and chose the 
officers of the city, the nine archons, treasurers, generals, etc. 
There was also a Senate of 401 members, chosen by lot from 
men of over 30 years of age. . But no one could be a Senator 
twice, till all the number eligible had served. Members were 
fined for failing to attend in the Senate or Assembly, in 
various sums, according to their position in the three classes 
of Pentacosiomedimni, Hippeis, and Zeugitae classes which we 
now hear of for the first time. The Council of the Areopagus 
continued to exist, and any one who had suffered injury could 
appeal to it. 



j66 CONSTITUTION OF ATHENS 

(iii) The Constitution of Solon. Solon's reforms were as 
follows : 

1. The Seisachtheia, which was a cancelling of all debts, 

public and private. 

2. The prohibition of loans upon the security of the 

person. 

These revolutionary changes were rendered neces 
sary by the state of poverty and debt into which 
the Athenian people had sunk, for the land was 
now in possession of a small number of owners, 
and the laws of debt very severe. 

3. The ordinances of Draco were repealed, except those 

relating to homicide; new laws were passed, and 
written down on Kyrbeis (wooden prisms). 

4. The three classes mentioned in Draco's constitution, 

with the addition of a fourth, or Thetes, were made 
the basis of political organisation. The officers of 
the city were chosen from the first three ; the fourth 
only attended in the Assembly or law courts. 

5. The officers of the city were chosen by lot out of a 

number previously selected (/cA??ptDroi IK. TrpoKpirav). 
For the archonship each of the four tribes selected 
ten, and from these forty nine were taken by lot. 

6. Of the four tribes which comprised all the citizens 

each was divided into three trittyes and twelve 
naucraries for purposes of taxation. 

7. There were two Councils : 

(&) The Senate of the Four Hundred one hundred 
from each tribe, 

(&) The Council of the Areopagus, which still re 
mained as guardian of the Constitution, enio-KOTros 
TTJS iro\iT6ia$. 
8. A court of law (SiKavrripiov) -was created, to which 

appeals could be made from the sentence of the 

magistrates. 



CONSTITUTION OF A THENS 167 

9. Solon also altered the coinage, and the weights and 

measures. 

After his legislation Solon left the country ; during his 
absence factions broke out at Athens. 

589 B.C. No archon was elected. 

583-581. Damasias held the archonship for two years and 
two months, and after his deposition in 581 ten 
archons were chosen, five from the Eupatridae, three 
from the farmers, and two from the artizans. How 
long this practice lasted is not 



_ a 

(iv) The 2'yranny. In 560 B.C. Pisistratns became tyrant 
He was twice expelled, and twice he returned. His rule was 
not harsh, for though he levied a tithe on the produce, he 
advanced money to enable the poor to till their land. He 
established StKatrra? Kara dypovs (judges in the villages) in 
order to make the administration of justice easier for those 
who lived in the country, and prevent the necessity of their 
coming to town. For the same reason he often visited the 
country, and reconciled quarrels : his reign was spoken of as 
the Age of Cronos. 

In 527 Pisistratus died and was succeeded by his sons j in 
514 Hipparchus was assassinated ; Aristotle's account of this 
differs in some points from that of Thucy dides, and in one point 
seems in designed contrast to it ; he asserts that arms were 
not at this time carried in the procession at the Panathenaea. 
In 510 B.C. Hippias was deposed. 

(v) The Constitution of Cleisthenes. The existing four 
tribes were replaced by ten, and at the same time a 
larger number of citizens were enrolled ; the Council was 
raised from 400 to 500 members, fifty from each of the 
new ten tribes. "He divided the country according to the 
demes into thirty parts : ten from the districts about the 
city, ten from the coast, and ten from the interior. These he 
called Trittyes, and he assigned three of them by lot to each 
tribe, in such a way that each should have one portion in each 



1 68 CONSTITUTION' OF ATHENS 

of tliese three divisions." Thus the tribes were placed in 
direct relation to the demes, and at the same time care was 
taken that all the denies in a tribe were not contiguous. 

The nuucruries were replaced by the denies for purposes of 
administration, and demarchs took the place of naucrari. 

In 501 B.C. the generals were elected according to the tribes, 
one from each tribe ; and in 488 the law of ostracism, -which 
was passed by Cleisthenes, was put in practice for the first 
time ; in 487 the archons were elected by lot out of candidates 
selected by the denies ; all the earlier ones (i.e. all those since 
the expulsion of the tyrants) having been elected by vote. 

(vi) After the Persian wars the Council of the Areopagus once 
more became the ruling power in the state ; and this supremacy 
continued for about 17 years, till in 462 B.C. Ephialtes stripped 
it of its acquired prerogatives. The constitution now became 
democratic, but no formal change was made till nine years 
later, when the archonship was opened to citizens of the class 
of the Zeu^itae. About 450 B.C. Pericles came to the front, 
and by diminishing still further the power of the Areopagus, 
and introducing payment for the jurors in the law courts, 
developed complete democracy. 

(vii) The account which Aristotle gives of the Revolution of 
the Four Hundred in 411 B.C. differs in many points from what 
we read in Thucydides. It is so complicated and minute that 
it can only be read with advantage in the original (Athen. 
Const, cc. 29-32). The Four Hundred were in office four 
months, June September 411. They were succeeded by 

the government of the Five Thousand, which is highly praised 

by Aristotle, as it is by Thucydides. This government was 

soon deposed, and complete democracy restored. 

(viii) Finally, the establishment and rule of the Thirty are 

described by Aristotle with some variation from Xenophon. 

The Thirty held office for about eight months August 404 B.C. 

to February 403 B.C. after which the democracy was again 

restored. 



CONSTITUTION OF LACEDAEMON. 

Divisions of the People. 

THE Dorians of Lacedaemou were an immigrant tribe who 
had established themselves in Peloponnesus by the conquest 
of the old Achaean inhabitants. The wars in which they 
accomplished this conquest were long and serious ; in some 
cases the Dorians admitted their defeated enemies to a modified 
political independence, in others they reduced them to a state 
of complete serfdom. But the whole government was in 
Dorian hands, and the Lacedaemonian constitution applies 
only to them. The subjects were divided into 

(1) Helots, a name which is said to be derived from the 
town of Helus, the last city subdued by the Spartans. This 
was the lowest and most numerous class of subjects, especially 
after the conquest of Messenia. They were not so much slaves 
as serfs, the property of the state rather than individuals, for 
their masters could not sell them, and a public act was required 
for their manumission. They lived on plots of land, paying 
a certain fixed sum to the owners. They accompanied. their 
masters to battle (at Plataea each Spartan was attended by seven 
Helots), rendered him service in other ways, and even served 
as light-armed soldiers in the army, and as sailors in the fleet. 
On rare occasions they were allowed to serve as heavy-armed 
soldiers. Though the Helots do not appear to have been in 
abject poverty, their lot was regarded as a very hard one. 
The Spartans were in constant terror of a rising, and took 
severe measures to prevent it. The Crypteia was a kind of 
detective service in which Spartan youths were sent round the 

1C9 



170 CONSTITUTION OF LACEDAEMON. 

country to keep watch on the Helots and remove any one who 
appeared to be plotting against the state. On the other hand 
Helots who had shown "bravery in the Spartan cause were 
sometimes allowed their liberty though 2000 who claimed it 
on this score in the Peloponnesian war disappeared, " no one 
knew how n (Thuc. iv. 80) and the children of Helots were at 
times "brought up as Spartans (Mothahs). Helots who had 
received their liberty were called 



(2) Perioeci. These were the ancient Achaeans, who, pro 
bably because they made less resistance than the Messenians 
and others, were allowed more favourable terms. They lived 
in towns, and appear to have managed their own affairs ; but 
they were governed by officers sent each year from Sparta, to 
which city they also paid tribute. They served in the army, 
constituting in fact the larger part of the heavy-armed soldiers. 
But they were in no sense members of the Spartan community. 
In the time of Polydorus the Perioeci were said to have 
numbered 30,000. 

(3) Spartans. These, like all Dorians, were divided into three 
tribes, the Hylleis, Dymanes, and Pamphyli. Each of these 
tribes was divided into ten dbes, which were again subdivided 
into oiKot or families. In the reign of Polydorus the number 
of these families is said to have been 9000. There was no 
distinction of classes as at Athens, at any rate in the best 
times of Sparta. All the citizens were regarded as equal 
(cfyioiot), and each house or family had a certain amount of 
land, sufficient at the least to provide the master of it with 
means enough to support his place as a citizen. But the 
difficulty of harmonising property and population was deeply 
felt, and in time the citizens became fewer and fewer, while 
the land was owned by a comparatively small number of 
proprietors. These difficulties, which arose partly from the 
unequal number of children in families, partly from the deaths 
in war or other calamities, were increased by the law of 
Bpitadeus, by which it became possible to sell or give away 



CONSTITUTION OF LACEDAEMON. 171 

the plots of land which had hitherto been inalienable. Hence, 
in the time of Agis III., the citizens were divided into Homoei 
(o/ioioi) and Hypomeiones (Inferiors) ; the number of Spartans 
was 700 only, and the land was in the possession of 100 
owners. 

Lycurgus. 

The Spartans regarded their constitution as the work of 
Lycurgus. But of Lycurgus little was known even in antiquity 
that was certain. The dates of his life differ (see Tables) ; and 
authorities are not agreed what part of the constitution of 
Sparta is really his work. He is universally regarded as 
putting an end to a period of strife and sedition. Hence it is 
probable that he curtailed the power of the kings Aristotle 
(Politics, 5. 12), speaks of the tyranny of Charilaus changing 
into an aristocracy and gave greater authority to the nobles 
and people. This is perhaps all that we can ascribe to him ; 
the training (at any rate in the details), the Bphors, and arrange 
ment of the army were later. 

The Kings. 

Sparta was unique in possessing a double monarchy. The 
two kings, according to the legend, were descended from 
the twin sons of Aristodemus, one of the three Heracleids who 
conducted the invasion into the Peloponnesus. The elder line 
was known as the Eurystheids, or Agiads, the younger as the 
Proclids or Eurypontids. Of this extraordinary arrangement no 
satisfactory explanation can be given ; it may be conjectured 

(1) That the two kings represent a Dorian and an Achaean 
community which came to terms with each other, retaining 
their separate monarchs. 

(2) That they represent two Dorian communities, who after 
a period of strife united at Sparta. 

(3) That they represent two eminent families whose claims 
to precedence, after causing much strife, were at length com 
promised by admitting both to the monarchy. 



i;2 CONSTITUTION OF LACEDAEMON. 

The two lines of kings had separate burial-places, and did 
not intermarry. Herodotus tells us that the two sons of 
Aristodemus quarrelled all their lives and their descendants 
had done the same. 

Duties of the Kings. 

(1) As Priests. They were the Priests of Zeus Lacedaemonius 
and Zeus Uranius. They were summoned to all public sacrifices 
and received a double portion of food. They also received the 
skins of the victims. In war they offered sacrifice on the part 
of the people (Hdt. vi 56). 

(2) fudges. They decided in the cases of heiresses (Trarpov^ov 
napQevov wept) who were claimed by one or more relatives, and 
adoptions were made in their presence. They were also charged 
with the superintendence of the public roads. 

(3) Military Commanders. In war they were the com- 
manders-in-chief. Originally both kings went out with the 
army, but afterwards only one was sent. Their powers were 
gradually curtailed. Two of the Ephors accompanied them to 
the field, and, at times, their power was limited by commis 
sioners who accompanied them on their expeditions. More 
over, they were liable to be brought to trial by the Ephors 
for their conduct. In more than one instance we find kings 
deposed by the Ephors. 

The Gerontes. 

^ These were twenty-eight in number, forming, together 
with the kings, a council of thirty. As this number cor 
responds to that of the obes, it is probable that each obe 
had a representative in the Assembly, an arrangement which 
also implies that the two kings belonged to two separate 
obes. The Gerontes were men over sixty years of age, and 
held their office for life. They were elected by acclama 
tion. We have little information about their duties. Cases 
involving the life of a citizen were brought before them j 



CONSTITUTION OF LACEDAEMON. 173 

and they had some jurisdiction over the kings. To what 
extent their sentences required to be confirmed Toy the popular 
Assembly is doubtful. 

The Assembly or Halia. 

According to the Mhetra of Lycurous given in Plutarch's 
life, the Assembly was to be convened at stated times between 
two fixed points, Babyke and Knakion, at Sparta. The people 
thus assembled were to have the right of accepting or refusing 
the measures brought before them, but discussion was not 
allowed. At a later time, in the reign of King Theopompus, 
the Kings and Gerontes seem to have succeeded in taking 
from the people their right of control (al 6e cr/coXtav 6 ajuo<? 
eXoiro, TQVS Trpecr/Svyez/eas 1 KOI ap^aysras aTrocrTarTJ/xz? et/x^v). 
If this was so, it is certain that the people afterwards recovered 
it. The Assembly was composed of Spartans over thirty years 
of age. The votes were given by acclamation, but in Thuc. i. 
87 we find an instance in which the Assembly was asked to 
divide upon a question. The matters brought before the 
Assembly were questions of peace and war, the enactment of 
laws, manumission of Helots, election of magistrates, etc. 

The JEphors. 

The time at which the Ephors were instituted at Sparta 
is uncertain, some ascribing the office to Lycurgus, others 
(Aristotle among the number) to Theopompus, others again 
to Chilon. In the first instance the Ephors seem to have 
been charged with the settlement of petty disputes, but 
by degrees they became the most powerful body in the 
state, so that some thought them a tyrannical element in 
the Lacedaemonian constitution. They were five in number, 
elected from the people, even the very poorest being chosen. 
They held office for a year, and were irresponsible. Though 
they do not seem to have had the power to pass sentence of 
death, they controlled almost every department of the con- 



r/4 CONSTITUTION OF LACEDAEMON. 

stitution. We find them sending out armies, accompanying 
the kings on their expeditions, bringing kings to justice for 
misconduct, and interfering with their marriages, etc. They 
also, in the last resort, superintended the training of the 
children and young citizens. Though in many respects the 
ephoralty is condemned by Aristotle, he allows that it was 
owing to it that the constitution remained so long unaltered 
(Pol 5. 11). The first Bphor, like the first archon at Athens, 
gave his name to the year. 

The Training. 

But the distinctive feature of the Spartan constitution 
was the training of the Spartan youth, "both male and female. 
To whom this elaborate system, in which a Spartan was 
regarded as existing for the state only, and trained for that 
service, is due cannot be fixed with certainty. In its full 
extent it probably belongs to the period after the Messenian 
wars, and may have been largely developed from some ancient 
germs by Chilon. 

From the moment of birth a Spartan child was the object 
of public solicitude. It was left to a select body of elders to 
decide whether the infant was worth rearing or not. If not, 
it was exposed ; if it was strong and healthy, it was reared by 
the mother till the age of seven, when the public training 
began. The children were under the superintendence of 
Paedonomi, but the youngest were associated with those older 
than themselves, these again with others still older, in order 
that they might learn by example, no less than instruction. 
They practised various gymnastic exercises ; when sufficiently 
strong they went out hunting ; and were stimulated by com 
petitive trials of skill, strength, and agility. In order to test 
their endurance, boys were whipped at the altar of Athena 
Orthosia, a process under which some are said to have died. 
The amount of food allowed was purposely insufficient in order 
that the boys might add to it by hunting or even theft, which 



CONS TITUTION OF LA CEDAEMON. 175 

was only punished when detected. After the age of twelve 
but one garment was allowed, and neither head nor feet were 
covered. From the age of twenty to thirty the Spartans were 
called f ipves. 

Of intellectual training they received very little. They were 
trained in Dorian musical measures, and learned certain 
poems which were thought suitable, especially the songs of 
Terpander. Besides this they were allowed to be present at 
the conversations and discussions of the older men, in order to 
hear specimens of Laconian wit and brevity. Every influence 
which could in any way excite them to distinguish themselves 
in the exercises assigned to them was brought to bear upon 
them. The training of the girls was naturally less severe than 
that of the boys, but they also practised gymnastic exercises, 
and were incited to excellence by competitions in public. 

The training came to an end at the age of thirty. But the 
Spartan even then was not his own master. He was indeed 
allowed to have his own house and wife (if he married earlier, 
he could only visit his wife in secret) but he could not take 
his meals at home. He had to be present at the Syssitia or 
common meals provided under public supervision (^tStrta is 
the Laconian name), where only a prescribed kind and amount 
of food was allowed. To this meal each citizen contributed a 
quota, on the payment of which rested his position as a citizen. 
Any one who failed to pay was no longer a member of the 
Spartan body. For those who in the degenerate days of 
Greece regarded individual licence as the source of al] evil, 
and a strict education as the best remedy for impending 
ruin, Sparta offered peculiar attractions. Here the lawgiver 
had succeeded in moulding according to his will the minds and 
bodies of a community. Their lives and the most important 
relations of life were controlled by the state, and dedicated to 
the service of the community. The bravery of the Spartans 
was an accepted fact in Hellas ; they were never known to 
fly ; and in their steadfast courage the effect of their training 



176 CONSTITUTION OF LACEDAEMON, 

was most apparent. Every precaution was taken to prevent 
the high standard from "being contaminated by luxury. There 
was no coinage in Sparta ; the utmost simplicity of dress 
was demanded from rich and poor alike. Strangers were 
received with caution and mistrust. But the system neverthe 
less broke down ; the equality of the citizens became a fiction 
rather than a reality, fewer and fewer were found able or 
willing to undergo the training. The selfish use which Sparta 
made of her supremacy after the fall of Athens roused a 
strong feeling against her, and with the loss of Messenia a 
great portion of the land (from which came the funds necessary 
for the maintenance of the Syssitia) was lost also. From this 
time dates the rapid decline of Sparta, whose system of 
government appears to hare had far less attraction for Aristotle 
than it had exercised in a previous generation on Plato and 
Xenophon. 



INDEX 

TO THE CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES. 
(The Numbers denote the years B c.) 



A bdera founded by Clazomenae, 654. 
Abydus founded by Miletus, 715. 

revolts from Athens, 411. 

battle at, 411. 

. Pharnabazus repulsed at, 409. 

Acanthus, in Chalcidice, founded 

by Andros, 654. 
and Apolloma ask help from 

Sparta against Olynthus, 383. 
Acarnania, Phorniio makes an ex 
pedition into, 429. 

. invaded by Agesilaus, 390. 

Acamaniam, the, occupy Anac- 

torium, 425. 
A ckaea j oins the Athenian alliance, 

454. 
Achaeans, the, of Calydon apply 

to Lacedaemon for help against 

the Acarnanians, 391. 
Acragas (Agrigentum) founded by 

the Geloans, 582. 
Actium, the Corcyreans conquer 

the Corinthians at, 435. 
Aeaces restored to Samos by the 

Persians, 494. 
Aegina taken by Dorians, 1074. 

at war with Athens, 491. 

besieged by the Athenians. 

458. 

reduced by the Athenians, 456, 

at war with Athens, 389. 

Aeginetans, the, join the Thebans 

against Athens, and attack 

Attica, 507. 



Aeginetans expelled from Aegina, 

4t31. 
Aegnspotami, Lysander defeats the 

Athenians at, 405. 
Aeolian colonies in Asia Minor 

founded, 1054. 
Aeschines, the orator, at Mantinea, 

362. 

"Against Tiniarchus," 345. 

"On the False Legation," 343. 

" On the Crown," 330. 

at the Amphictyonic Assembly 

with Midias, 339. 
A eschylus at the battle of Marath on. 

490. 

"Persae," 472. 

"Oresteia/'458. 

dies, 456. 

Aesopus (fable-poet), 570. 
Agathon, the tragic poet, wins the 

prize at the Lenaea, 416. 
Aqesttaus becomes king in Sparta, 

399. 

sets out for Asia, 396 

collects his army at Ephesus, 

395. 

marches on Sardis, 395. 

makes an alliance with Cotys, 

395. 

is recalled, 394. 

invades Corinth, 392. 

invades Argolis, 391. 

ravages the country of the 

Acarnanians, 391. 
prepares to invade Acamania 

again, 390. 

177 



INDEX. 



[AGE 



Af/esilam besieges Phlius, 380. 

refuses to go on the expedition 

to Thebes, 379. 

dies, 357. 

Af/csipolis dips at Aphytis, 380. 
Ay is invades Attica the fifth time 

makes meursionsfroinDeceleia 

413. 

invades Elis, 401. 

invades Elis the second time 

400. 

dies at Lacedaemon, 399. 

Agis 77. heads a revolt in Pelopon 

nesus, but is crushed and slaii 

by Antipater, 330. 
Agnon, oxHagnoUj see Amphipolis 
Agng&ntuin,, siege and capture of 

406. 

A lalia founded by Phocaea, 564. 
Alcaeus of Mitylene, 610. 
AlcameneSy king of Sparta, 743. 
"Alcestis," the, of Euripides, 438 
AlciUades attacked for offences 

against the mysteries, 415. 
. sails to Sicily, but is recalled 

and goes to Argos, 415. 
intrigues with the Samian 

oligarchs for his return, 411. 

returns to Samos, 411. 

recalled, 411. 

escapes from Sardis, 410. 

gains Selymbria and Chalcedon 

for Athens, 409. 
ischosengeneral though exiled, 



is deposed from the general 
ship, 407. 

death of, 404. 

Alcidas takes 42 ships to Mitylene, 

Alcmaeonids expelled from Athens, 

Alcman, the lyric poet, lived at 

Sparta about 671. 
Alexander of Pherae takes Samos, 

and defeats the Athenians at 

Peparethus, 362. 

assassinated, 359. 

Alexander the Great born, 356. 



Alexander the Great and Olympias 

leave Macedonia, 337. 

succeeds in Macedon, 336. 

besieges and captures Thebes. 

335. 

takes Miletus, 334. 

passes into Persia, 334. 

falls ill at Tarsus, 333. 

pursues Darius to Ecbatana, 

subjugates Spgdiana, 329-327. 

demands divine honours, 327. 

proceeds to Bactna and 
marries Eoxana, 327. 

captures Bessus, whom he 

puts to death, and massacres the 
Branchidae, 329. 

marches to Babylon, is taken 
ill and dies, 323. 

Alexandria, foundation of, 332. 
Alyattes succeeds Sadyattes in 

Lydia, 617. 
Amasis dethrones Apries, king of 

Egypt, 570. 

Ambracia founded by Corinth, 625. 
Amphicfyonic war, 339. 
Amphilochian Argos attacked by 

Spartans and Ambraciots, 426. 
A mphipolis, Athenians attempt to 

colonise the district, 465. 

built by Hagnon, 437. 
taken by Brasidas, 424. 

is retained by Lacedaemon, 

421. 

attacked by Athens and Per- 

diccas, 414. 

besieged by Philip, 358. 
Amyntas L, king of Macedonia, 

540. 

offers Anthemus to Hippias, 
510. ** ' 

Amyntas 77., king of Macedonia, 

389. 
Anacharsis, the Scythian, said to 

have visited Athens about 592. 
Anacreon of Teos, 543. 
Anactorium founded by Corinth. 

625. 
occupied by the Acaruauians, 

425. 



ABT] 



INDEX. 



179 



A naxagoras leaves Athens, 450. 

the philosopher, 448. 

Anaxandndas and Ariston, kingt, 

of Sparta, 560 
Anaxibius supersedes Dercyllidas 

at Abydus, 389. 
defeated and slam by Iphi- 

crates, 389. 

Anaxilaus of Bhegium, 493. 
Anaximander of Miletus, 592. 
Anaximenes of Miletus, 546. 
Andotides, the orator, 391. 
Antalcidas is sent to Tiribazus, the 

general of the king, to propose 

peace, 392. 
goes to Ephesus and joins 

Tiribazus, 389. 
prevents the corn ships from 

sailing to Athens, 388. 

. the peace of, 387. 

Antandrus taken by Athens, 424. 
A ntimachus of Tens, 753. 
Anhphanes, the comic poet, 343. 
Antiphon executed, 411. 
Antisthenes, the philosopher, 399. 
Apollonia founded by Corinth, 625. 
Apries, king of Egypt, dethroned 

by Amasis, 570. 

Aracus is sent out as admiral, 405. 
Arbela, Alexander defeats Darius 

at, 331. 

Arcadians, the, celebrate the Olym 
pic festival with the Pisatans, 364. 
use the sacred money, but the 

Mantineans refuse to do so, 363. 
Arcesilaus I. succeeds Battus I. 

in Gyrene, 591. 
Archias of Corinth founds Syracuse, 

734. 
Archidamus I/., king of Sparta, 

469. 
Archidamus III. succeeds Agesilaus 

in Sparta, 357 (361). 
ArcMlochus of Paros, 700. 
Arctinus of Miletus, 776. 
Ardys, king of Lydia, 678-629. 
Areopagus, the, weakened by Peri 
cles and Ephialtes, 460. 
Arginusae, Peloponnesians defeated 

at the, 406. 



Argive democracy put down, 418. 

oligarchy defeated by the 

popular party, 417. 

A rgolis, invasion of, by Cleomenes, 
520. 

invasion of, by Epidaurus,418. 

Argos and Sparta at war, 669. 
and Epiflaurus at war, 419. 

and Lacedaemon, peace be 
tween, 418. 

the Scytalism at, 370. 

Ariobarzcwies tries to bring about 

peace between the Thebans and 

Lacedaemonians, 368. 
Arion of Methymna in Lesbos, 625. 
Aristagoras attacks Naxos, 501, 
revolts from Persia, 500. 

retires to Myreinus and is 

slain, 497. 

Aristeides, archon at Athens, 489. 

ostracised, 483. 

proposes that the 4th Solonian 

class should be allowed to hold 

office, 477. 
- death of, 468 
Aristippus, the philosopher, 399. 
flriston and Anaxandridas, kings 

of Sparta, 560. 
A ristowhaneSt the * * Banq ueters " 

of, 427. 

the "Babylonians " of, 426. 

the " Acharnians " of, 425. 

the "Knights "of, 424. 

the " Clouds" of, 423. 

the "Wasps" of, 422. 

the " Peace" of, 421. 

the "Birds "of, 414. 

the " Lysistrata " and " Ther- 

mophoriazusae" of, 411. 

the " Frogs " of, 405. 

the "Ecclesiazusae" of, 392. 

the " Plutus " of, 388. 

Aristotle, birth of, 384. 

summoned to the Macedonian 

court, 342. 

death of, 322. 

Arnaeans driven into Boeotia, 

1123. 
Artaphernes, a Persian, captured at 

Eion, 425. 



i8o 



INDEX. 



[ART 



Artazerxes /. succeeds Xerxes, 465. 

death of, 425. 

Artaxerxes II. succeeds Darius II., 

405. 
Artemisia succeeds Mau&olus in 

Caria, 351. 

Artemixiuiii) seafight at, 480. 
Asinn conquered by the Argives, 

761. 

Astyages defeated by Cyrus, 559. 
Atarneus besieged by Dercyllidas, 

397. 
Athenian OlerticM, first instance of 

at Chalcis, 507. 

empire, rise of, 476. 

army and fleet defeated in 

Egypt, 455. 

embassy to Samos, 411. 

the, oligarchs make proposals 

of peace to Sparta, 411. 
Athenians at war with Corinth, 

Epidaurus, and Aegina, 458. 
the. form an alliance with 

Sitalces, 431. 

the, capture Cythera, 424. 

the, retake Scione, 421. 

the, under Pythodorus attack 

Laconia, 414. 
- the, take tolls from ships 

passing through the Hellespont, 

410. 
the, help to rebuild the walls 

of Corinth, 391. 
the, put to death one of the 

generals who assisted the The- 

bans and banish the other, 379. 
the, build gates to the Peir- 

aeus, 378. 
the. make peace with Sparta, 

369. 
the, and the Phliasians make 

peace with Thebes, 366. 
the, declare war on Philip, 

340. 
Athens, decennial archons at, 752. 

nine yearly archons at, 683. 

at war with Aegina, 491. 

occupied by the Persians, 480. 

rebuilt and surrounded by a 

wall, 478. 



Athens abandons the empire by 

land, 445. 
and Sparta at peace for 30 

years, 445. 

founds Thurii, 443. 

forms a defensive alliance 

with Corcyra, 433. 

plague breaks out at, 430. 

takes Antandrus, 424. 

forms an alliance with the 

Argive confederacy (exc. the 

Corinthians), 420. 
Lacedaemon declares war on, 

413. 
proposes peace to Agis, which 

he refuses, 411. 

revolution at, 411. 

blockaded by land and sea, 

405. 
sends ambassadors to Agis to 

treat for peace, 405. 
the Thirty established at, 

404. 

walls of, rebuilt by Conon, 393. 

at war with Aegina, 389. 

reform in finance at, 378. 

the allies revolt from, Social 

War, 358-356. 

at war with Philip, 357. 

makes peace with Olynthus, 

352. 
Attica first invaded by Archi- 

damus, 431. 
invaded by the Peloponnesians 

for the second time, 430. 
invaded ior the third time, 

428. 
invaded for the fourth time, 

427- 

invaded for the fifth time, 425. 

Autocles is sent from Athens to the 

Hellespont to secure the corn 

supplies, 361. 

Automenes, king of Corinth, de 
posed, 745. 

B 

Babylon became independent of 
Assyria under Nabopolassar, 625. 



CHA1 



INDEX. 



181 



Babylon taken by Cyrus, 538. 
Bacchylid-es, the lyric poet, 480. 
Battus 2. founds Gyrene, 631. 
Battut> II. of Gyrene succeeds 

Arcesilaus I., 575. 
Bessus conspires against Alexander, 

330. 
Boeotia e vacuated by the Ath enians, 

447. 
-plot formed for the invasion 

of, 424. 
invaded for the first time by 

the Spartans under Cleombrotus, 

378. 
invaded the second time by 

the Spartans under AgesUaus, 

378. 
. invaded the third time by the 

Lacedaemonians under Agesilaus, 

377. 
. invaded the fourth time by 

the Peloponnesians under CleoM- 

brotus, 376. 
Boeotians, the, take possession of 

Heraclea, 419. 
the, ally themselves with 

Lacedaemon, 421. 
Borysthenes founded by Miletus, 

654. 
Brasidas takes Torone, 424. 

takes Amphipohs, 424. 

fails in an attempt on Potidaea, 

423, 

captures Scione, 423. 

death of, 422. 

Byzantians supported by Athens, 

390. 

Byzantium founded by the Mega- 
rians, 657. 

conquest of, 476 

revolt, 411. 

is betrayed to the Athenians 

409. 

and Athens, alliance between 

341. 



Calliades archon at Athens, 480. 
Callias in Susa, 444. 



fallieratidas succeeds Lysander, 

407. 

killed at Arginusae, 406. 

Callinus the elegiac poet, 715. 
Oallisthenes is killed for opposing 

Alexander's demand for divine 

honours, 327. 
lallistratus banished from Athens, 

361. 
7amarina founded by Syracuse, 

599. 

destroyed by Syracuse, 553. 
lambyses succeeds Cyrus, 529. 

king of Persia, dies, 521. 

"larnaean festival at Sparta is 

founded, 676. 
Carthaginians defeated at Himera, 

480. 

in Sicily massacred, 397. 

the, take Messene, 395. 

larystus conquered by the Athe 
nians, 470. 

Casmenae founded by Syracuse, 644. 
Catana founded by Naxos, 730. 
the Carthaginians successful 

in an engagement off, 395. 

ersoUeptes succeeds Cotys in 

Thrace, 360. 
Chabrias defeats Gorgopas in 

Aegina, 389. 

defeats the Peloponnesian 
fleet at Naxos, 376. 

returns from Egypt to Athens, 
359. 

is killed at the battle of Chios, 
358. 

CTiaeronea, battle of, 338. 

Chalcedon founded by Megara, 675. 

Chalcis and Athens, alliance be 
tween, 342. 

Chares and Aitabazus defeat Tith- 
raustes, 356. 

conquers Sestos, 353. 

Charidemus supports Cotys, who 
seizes Sestus, and claims the 
Chersonese, 360. 

executed, 333 

Charilaus, king- of Sparta, 884. 

Gharondas, the lawgiver of Catana, 
640. 



M 



INDEX. 



[CHE 



Chersonese, the, handed over to 

Athens, 358. 
Ghwn$, the, compelled by Athens 

to dismantle their walls, 425. 
the, recover the command of 

the sea, 411. 
Chilo/i of Sparta, 596, 

Ephor at Sparta, 556. 

Chionides, the comic poet, began 

to exhibit, 487. 

Chios revolts from Athens, 412. 
and Lacedaemon, alliance be 
tween, 412. 
blockaded by the Athenians, 

413. 

allies defeat Athens at, 358. 

Cimon conquers Eion and Seyms, 

471. 

marches to aid the Lacedae 
monians, 464. 

banishment of, 461. 

. recalled, 457. 

peace of, 444. 

Cinaaon, conspiracy of, 399. 
dnaethon of Lacedaemon, 770, 
drrhaean or first Sacred War 

breaks out, 595. 
Clazwnenae revolts from Athens, 

but is recovered, 412. 
Cl&isthenes of Sicyon, victor in the 

second Pythiad, 582. 
Clewthenes of Athens, constitution 

of, 509. 

expelled from Athens, 508. 

Cleitw, murder of, 328. 
Cleoiribrotus is sent to Thebes, 379 
invades Boeotia for the first 

time, 378. 

slam at Leuctra, 371. 

d&omenes, king of Sparta, attacks 
Argolls, 520. 

and Demaratus, kings of 

Sparta, 510. 

dies, 491. 

Clean sent to Pylus instead of 

Nicias, 425. 
sails to Chalcidice and retakes 

Torone, 422 

tries to recover Amphipolis 

and is sl<un, 422. 



Cnidos t Conon defeats Peisander at, 

394. 
Codrus slain in battle against 

Dorians, 1066. 

sons of, lead out colonies into 
Asia Minor, 1044. 

Conon is made commander of the 
Athenian fleet, 407. 

defeated by Callicratidas at 

Mitylene, 406. 

defeats Peisander at Cnidos, 

394 
rebuilds the walls of Athens, 

393. 

is imprisoned by Tiribazus, 
392. 

is sent by the Athenians to 
Tiribazus to operate against the 
Lacedaemonians, 392. 

death of, 389. 

Corcyra colonised by Corinthians, 

734 
Alcidas and Brasidas sail to, 

427. 
massacre of the oligarchs at, 

425. 

taken by Timotheus, 375. 

CorintJi taken by Dorians, 1074. 

conference of the allies at, 

412. 

Corinthians, the, defeated by the 

Athenians under Myronides, 458. 
Coroebus, victory of, in Olympic 

games, 776. 
Coronea, battle of, 447. 

Agesilaus is victorious at, 394. 

Cotys is assassinated. 360. 
Omnnon, battle of, 322. 
Crates^ the comic poet, 449. 
Cratinus, the comic poet, 449. 
Crissct taken by the Araphictyons 

under "Enrylochus, 590. 
Cntias, one of the Thirty, quarrels 

with Theramenes, 404. 

is slain, 403. 

Croesus succeeds Alyattes in Lydia 

oou. 

OrotiMMt*, siege of, 365. 
Crofwi founded by the Achaeans, 

710. 



-DEM3 



INDEX. 



183 



Ctesias, the historian, 384. 
Cunaxa, Cyrus killed at, 401. 
Cyaxares succeeds Phraortes in 

Media, 634. 

i takes Nineveh, 606. 

Cylon attempts to become tyrant at 

Athens, 632, 
Cyme colonised, 1033. 
Cynoscephalae, the Thebans defeat 

Alexander at, but Pelopidas is 

killed, 363. 

Cynossem&j Peloponnesians de 
feated at, 411. 
Cyprus reconquered by the Persians, 

498. 

conquered by Pausanias, 476. 
Cypselus expels the Bacchiarlae 

from Corinth, 655. 
Gyrene founded by Battus of Thera, 

631. 
Cyrus I. defeats Astyages, 559. 

takes Sardis, 546. 

Cyrus II. co-operates with Lysan- 

der, 407. 
Cythera, captured by the Athenians 

under Nicias, 424. 
captured by Conon and Phar- 

nabazus, 393. 
Cyzicus founded by Miletus, 756, 

recolonised by Megara, 675. 

defeat of the Lacedaemonians 

at, 410. 

D 

Damascus captured by Alexander, 

333. 

Dampphon, king of Pisa, 588. 
Darius recovers Persiafrom Pseudo- 

Smerdis, 521. 

expedition against Scythia, 

515. 

demands earth and water oi 

the Greeks, 491. 

makes fresh preparations 

against Greece, 491 . 

dies, 485. 

Darius II. begins to reign in Persia 

425. 
dies, 405. 



Darius Codomannus succeeds in 

Persia, 336. 
Dascylium, Greek cavalry repulsed 

at, by Pharnabazus, 396. 
Deceleia in Attica, occupied by the 

Spartans, 413. 

eioceSj king of Media, according 

to Herodotus, 709-656. 
Delians removed to Adramyttmm, 

422. 
Dehum, defeat of the Athenians at, 

424. 
Delos, confederacy of, organised, 

475. 

purification of, 426. 

second purification of, 422. 

second confederacy of, 378. 

Delphi, the temple at, burnt, 458. 
attacked by the Phocians, 448, 

355. 
Demades, peace of, between Athens 

and Philip, 338. 
Dc.maratus and Cleomenes, kings 

of Sparta, 510. 

of Sparta is deposed, 491. 

Democritus is born, 460. 
Demosthenes attacks Leucas and 

then the Aetolians, 426. 
sent to Sicily, fortifies Pyltis, 

425. 
comes to Syracuse with a fleet, 

413. 
fails in an attack on Epipolae, 

413. 

and Nicias capitulate, 413. 

Demosthenes, the orator, born, 382. 
"Against Androtion," 355. 

" Against Leptines," and " On 
the Symmories," 354. 

"For the Megalopolitans," 
"Against Timociates," and 
"Against Aristo crates," 352. 

"For the Rhodians," and 
" First Philippic," 351. 

" Against Midias," 350. 

Olynthiac orations, 349. 

"On the Peace," 346. 

"Second Philippic," 344. 

" De Chersoneso,"and 

Philippic," 341. 



184 



INDEX. 



[DEM- 



Demosthenes, the orator crowned 

at the Dionysia, 339. 

" On the Crown/' 330. 

is condemned and fined, he 

leaves Athens, 324 

is recalled, 323. 

dies at Calaureia, 322. 

Dercyllidas goes to Lampsacus, and 

is continued in the command lor 

another year, 398. 
"besieges Atarneus, 897. 
Derdds and the Lacedaemonians 

repulse the Olynthians, 382. 

repulses the Olynthians, 381. 

Diodes, constitution and laws of, 

412. 
Dion, exiled from Syracuse by 

Dionysius, returns to Syracuse, 

357. 
is assassinated at Syracuse by 

Calippus, 353. 
Dumy siits 7. becomes tyrant of 

Syracuse, 406. 

fortifies Ortygia, 405. 

makes peace with the Cartha 
ginians, 405. 
attempt to depose, which he 

frustrates, 405. 

besieged in Ortygia, 404. 

is supported by Sparta, 403. 

conquers Naxus, Catana, and 

Leontini, 401. 

double marriage of, 397. 

besieges Motye, 397. 

makes an alliance with Sparta, 

395. 

re-establishes Messene, 394. 

fails in his attempt on 

Kliejnum, 392. 

takes Tauromenium, 391. 

makes peace with the Cartha 
ginians, 391. 

fails to take B-hegium, 390. 

defeats and captures the 

Italiot Greeks, 389. 

restores Alcetas to Epirus, 385, 

renews the war with Carthage 

and is totally defeated, 383. 
of Syracuse assists the Spartans, 

369. 



Dionysius I. again assists the Spar 
tans, 368. 
gains the prize for Tragedy at 

the Lernaean festival, but dies 

soon after, 368. 
Dionysius 1L succeeds his father, 

368. 

returns to Syracuse, 345. 

retires to Corinth, 344. 

Diopithes in the Hellespont, 342. 
Dorians invade the Peloponnese, 

1103. 
take Corinth, Sicyon, Troezen, 

Bpidaurus, and Aegina, 1074. 
colonise Melos, Cmdus, Halt- 

carnassus, Rhodes, and part of 

Crete, 1066. 

take Megara, 1066. 

Dorieus of Lacedaemon, 510. 
Draco's Laws, 621. 



E 



the 



Ecdicus defeats Philocrates, 

Athenian, 390. 
Eetionea, destroyed, 411. 
jfigesta, and Seliuus, quarrel be 

tween, 416, 409. 
Egypt conquered by Cambyses, 525. 

- revolts from Persia, 486. 

- recovered by the Persians, 484. 
Eira,, capture of, 668. 

Cleans defeat the Pisatans under 
Pyrrhus, 572. 

- seize Lasion, but the Arcadians 
defeat them, 366. 

Eleusis, the Thirty aie deposed and 
retire to, 403. 

- attack on, the generals are 
slain, 403. 

Mis invaded by Agis, 401. 

-- invaded by Agis, the second 

time, 400. 

Mmpedocles floruit, 443. 
JSpaminondas at Leuctra, 371. 

- invades Peloponnesus, 369, 
368, 367. 

- in Thessaly, 366. 
-- in the Hellespont, 363. 



HER] 



INDEX. 



185 



Epaminondas invades Peloponnesus 

and falls at Mantinea, 362. 
Epliesus, Tissaphernes defeats 

Thrasylus at, 410. 
Epicharmus, the comedian, still 

exhibits in Syracuse, 485. 
Epicydidas is sent to recall Agesi- 

laus, 394. 
Emdamnus founded by Corinth, 

625 (cf. 435). 
Epidawm taken by Dorians, 1074. 

and Argos at war, 419. 

Epimenides of Crete visits Athens. 

596. 

Epipolae captured by the Atheni 
ans, 414. 
Eretria liberated by the Athenians, 

340. 

Erinna of Lesbos, 610. 
Erythrae revolts from Athens, 412. 
Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, 681- 

667. 
Eteowicus* soldiers conspire to 

seize the goods of the Chians and 

are detected, 406. 

abandons Mitylene, 406. 

Etna, eruption of, 425. 

Euboea and Megara revolt from 

Athens, 445. 

reconquered by Pericles, 445. 

revolt of, 411. 

revolts from the Thebans, 358. 

Emleides the philosopher, 399. 
Eugammon of Gyrene, 566. 
JSimelus, 761. 
Euphron establishes himself at 

Sicyon, 367. 
is assassinated in Thebes. 

367. 

Eupolis, the comic poet, exhibits 
T?T 



* Maricas " 
421. 



and " Flatterers/' 



Euripides, the tragic poet, 450. 

theAlcestis"of, 438. 

the "Medea "of, 431. 

the " Hippolytus" of, 428. 

the "Suppliants" of, 420. 

Eurylochus takes Crissa, 590. 

marches to aid the Aetolians, 

426. 



JSurymedon, double victory of 
Cinion over the Persians at, 466. 

Evagoras rescues Cyprus from the 
Phoenicians, 41 0. 

conquers Tyre and Cilicia, 388. 

is assassinated,, 380. 

Evarchus restored to Astaeus by 
Corinth, 431. 

Q 

Cr'assa, siege of, 332. 
ela, founded by Rhodes and Crete, 
690. 

Sicilian states confer at, 424. 

and Oamarina taken by Imil- 

con, 405. 

Gelo becomes tyrant of Gela, 491. 
- master of Syracuse, 485, 

Gorgias, the Sophist, 419. 

Granicus, battle of the, defeat of 
the Persians, 334. 

GreeTcs, the, assemble at the Isth 
mus, 481. 

Gfyges, king of Lydia, (according to 
Herodotus), 716. 

Gfylippus, the Spartan, sent to Syra 
cuse, 414. 

defeats the Athenians, 414, 

413. 

Gylis, the polemarch, is slain while 
invading Locris., 394. 

H. 

ffalicamassus taken by Alexander, 

334. 
Ealieis, Athens defeats Corinth 

and her allies at, 458. 
Hannilal of Carthage invades 

Sicily, 409. 
Harpalus, the satrap of Babylon, 

absconds to Greece with a large 

treasure, 324. 
Hecataem of Miletus, 500. 
HegeMionts " Gigantomachia, 1 ' 413. 
Helots revolt from Sparta, the, 464. 
Heph&estion, death of, 324. 
Heraclea, founded by the Spartans, 

426. 



186 



INDEX. 



[HER 



Ifemclea taken possession of by the 
Boeotians, 419. 
destruction of the colonists, 
at, 400. 


Ifistiaeus retires to the Hellespont 
495. 
at Chios ; captured and put to 
death by Artaphernes, 494. 



Iferacleans defeated by the neigh 

bouring tribes, 420. 
fftraclea in Pontus founded b" 

Miletus, 559. 

Ilemdeitus of Ephesus, 504. 
Here's temple at Argos burnt, 423 
Hermae, the affairs of the, 415. 
Ifermippus, the comic poet, 430. 
ffenmcrates of Syracuse t 424, 415, 
brings Spartan reinforcements 

to Miletus, 412. 
and the Syracusan generals 

deposed, 410. 
attempts to force his way into 



again tries to enter Syracuse 

but is slain, 408. 
Herodas causes great alarm in 

Sparta by announcing that a 

large fleet is being prepared in 

Phoenicia, 396. 
Herodotus bom (about) 484. 
Jfesiod, poetry of, 884. 
Hipparckus murdered, 514. 
Hippias succeeds Peisistratus, 527. 
expelled by Cleomenes and 

the Spartans, 510. 

repairs to Sardis, 507. 

at Marathon, 490. 

Hippias of Elis, Sophist, 419. 
Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela, 493. 
j of Miletus, the archi 



the, of Euripides, 



tect, 443. 
'* Hippolytits" 



Hipponax of Ephesus, 532. 
Hiero succeeds G-elo in Syracuse 

478. 
tyrant of Syracuse and Gela, 

476. 

tyrant of Syracuse, dies, 467. 

Himem founded by Zancle, 648. 
defeat of Carthaginians by 

Thero and Gela at, 480. 
Histmeus allowed to return from 

Susa, 406. 



Jlomeric poems, posbible date of 

950. 
HopJirak succeeds Psaminetichus II. 

in Egypt, 589. 
HyUaean Megara founded by 

Megara, 728. 

Hyperbolus banished, 417. 
Hyperides attacks PMlocrates for 

his conduct in regard to Macedon, 

343. 

demanded by Alexander, 335. 

death, 322. 



Alexander extends his 
conquest as far as the, 326. 
Hystae, defeat of Spartans by 
Argives at, 669. 



Ibycus of Rhegium, 543. 
Idomene, defeat of Spartans and 

Ambraciots at, 426. 
Imilcon takes Gela and Camarina, 

405. 

starves himself to death, 395. 
Jnarus, the Athenians send an 

expedition to support, who had 

revolted from Persia, 460. 
Ion of Chios, 450. 
lonians revolt from Persia, 499. 

defeated at Ephesus, 499. 

defeated at Lade, 494. 

revolt entirely suppressed, 493. 

IpUcrates destroys a Spartan mora, 

captures Sidus, Crommyon, 

and Oenoe, 392 

defeats the Phliisians, 393. 
defeats and slays Anaxibius. 

389. 

takes nine out of ten ships 
sent by Dionysius to assist the 
Spartans, 372. 

is sent to prevent the return 
of the Thebans, which he fails to 
do, 369. 



LYSJ 



INDEX. 



IS? 



Iphicrates retires from Thrace to 
Lesbos, 360. 

in the Hellespont, 357. 

Isaeus, the orator, 382. 

Isadoras, archon of Athens, 508. 

Ismenias is imprisoned and after 
wards put to death, 383. 

Isocrates, the orator, --82. 

death of, 338. 

Issus, defeat of Darius by Alexander 
at, 333. 

Istros founded by Miletus, 654. 



Jason of Pherae, rise of the power 

of, 375. 
assassinated, 370. 



Labotas, king of Sparta, 996. 
Lacedaemonians, the, fail in their 

attempt on Stratus, 429. 

found Heraclea, 426. 

make an alliance with Athens 

for 50 years, 421 
make an alliance with the 

Boeotians, 421. 
excluded trom the Olympic 

festival, 420. 

aid the Epidaurians, 418. 

declare war on Athens, 413. 

aid the Phocians against the 

Locrians, 395. 
send a poleniarch and a mora 

to Thespiae, and rebuild Plataea, 

378. 
defeated at Orchornenus, 375. 

See Sparta, and Spartans. 
Laches captures Myle, 426. 
Laconia attacked by the Athenians, 

414. 
Lade, defeat of the Ionian fleet at, 

494. 

Lamachus, death of, 414. 
Lamian War, the, 323. 
Latnpsacus founded by Miletus, 

654. 
captured by Lysander, 405. 



Lampsacus revolts from Athens, 

but is regained, 411. 
Lechaeum, victory ot the Lacedae 
monians over the Argives at, 

393. 
Leomdas and Leotychides, kings of 

Sparta, 491. 

is slam at Thernioplyae, 480. 

Leontini founded by Naxos, 730. 

revolution at, 422. 

Leosthenes "banished, 469. 

defeats Antipater, but is slain, 

323. 
Leotychides and Leonidas, kings of 

Sparta, 49L 
Lesoos colonised, 1053. 

revolts, 428. 
Lesches of Lesbos, 657. 
Leucas founded by Corinth, 625. 
Asopus defeated and killed at. 

428. 
Leucon, prince of the Hellespont, 

386. 
Leuctra. defeat of the Spartans at, 

371. 

Cleombrotus killed at, 371. 

LilT/laeum t the Carthaginians defeat 

Dionysius at, 368. 
Lipara founded by Cnidus and 

Rhodes, 579. 
Locri in Italy, founded by Loerians, 

673. 
Locrians and Athenians, treaty 

between, 422. 
Locris invaded by the Phocians, 

395. 
Lucanians, the, severely defeat the 

Thiarians, 390. 
Lycomedes, creates ill - feeling 

against the Thebans in Arcadia, 

369. 
for the Arcadians, negotiates 

a peace with Athens, 366. 
Lycurgus, earliest date for, 996. 

later date for, 884. 

Lydia at war with Media, 615. 

at peace with Miletus, 612. 

Lysander sent by the Spartans to 

replace Cratesippidas, 408. 
is sent out as epistoleus, 405. 



188 



INDEX. 



[LYS 



Lysander captures Lampsacus, 405. 
sails into the Peiraeus, and the 

walls of Athens are pulled down, 

404. 
sends a garrison to Athens to 

support the Thirty, 404. 

supports the Thirty with 

money and ships, 403. 

and the thirty Spartans re 
called, 395. 

attacks Haliartus and is slain 

395. 

Lysias, the orator, 393. 

M 
Magon and the Carthaginians make 

peace with Dionysius I., 391. 
Mantinea, battle of, 418. 

Epaminondas defeats the 

Spartans at, but is killed, 362. 

jfantineans, the, rebuild their wall. 
370. 

Marathon, Miltiades defeats the 
Persians at, 490. 

Mardonius leads the first expedi 
tion of the Persians against 
Greece, 492. 

is left in Greece with 300,000 

men, 480. 

Massilia founded by Phocaea, 600. 

Mausolus of Caria establishes oli 
garchies in Chios, Cos, and 
Rhodes, 355. 

dies, 351. 

"Medea," the, of Euripides, 431. 

MedeSj the, who had revolted, now 
submit to Darius," 409. 

Media at war with Lydia, 615. 

Median Empire, beginning of, 687. 

Megabassm' campaign in Thrace, 
etc., 514. 

Megalopolis* founded, 370. \ 

Megctra taken by Dorians, 1066. 

and Perinthus, sea-fight be 
tween, 565. 

long walls of, built, 461. 

and Euboea revolt from 

Athens, 445. 

invaded by Pericles, 431. 



Megara, lasting oligarchy in, 424, 
Melanchrus of Mitylene overthrown 

by Pittacus, 611. 

Melos taken by the Athenians, 416. 
Memnon, death of, during the siege 

of Mitylene, 333. 

Mende comes over to Brasidas, 423. 
recovered by the Athenians, 

423. 
Messenian war, first, 743-724. 

second, 688-668. 

third, 464-455. 

Messene.. Syracusans defeated at 

425. 

taken by the Carthaginians, 

395. 

established by Dionysius, 394. 

built by the Thebans, 369. 

Methone attacked by Athens, 431. 
Methymna, taken by Callicratidas, 

407. 
Micythus resigns the rule of Rhe- 

gium and Zancle, 467. 
Midas of Phrygia commits suicide, 

693. 

r ilesians, period of greatest power 

of the, 750. 
Miletus at peace with Lydia, 612. 

conquered, 494. 

and Samos at war about Priene, 

440. 

applies to Athens for help 

against Samos, 440. 

revolts from Athens, 412. 

the Athenians are victorious 
at, 412. 

taken by Alexander, 334. 
Miltiades archon at Athens, 524. 

tyrant of the Chersonese, 515. 

retires from the Chersonese, 

493. 

defeats the Persians at Mara 
thon, 490. 

attacks Paros, fails, is con 

demned, and dies, 489. 

Miltocythes revolts from Cotys an 

asks aid from Athens, 361. 
Mimnermus of Colophon, 630. 
Minoa captured by Nicias, 427. 
MityUne t blockade of, 428. 



PAN] 



INDEX. 



Afitylene^ blockaded by Paches, 428. 

- capitulates, 427. 

- - and Methymna in Lesbos re 

volt from Athens, but are re 
covered, 412. 

- Conon defeats Callicratidas 
at, 406. 

- besieged, 333. 
Mnasippus besieges Corcyra, 373. 
Motye besieged by Dipnysras, 397. 

- is taken by Dionysius, but 
retaken by Imilco, 396. 

Mycale, victory of the Greek fleet 

at, 479. 
Mycenae destroyed by the Argives, 

468. 

Myle captured by Laches, 426. 
Myron, the sculptor, 445. 

N 

Nabopolassar frees Babylon from 

Assyria, 625. 
fifaucratis founded by Miletus in 

Egypt, 630. 
Naupactus taken by the Athenians, 

458. 
given by Athens to the Mes- 

senians, 455. 
Naxos founded by Chalcis, 735. 

- is reduced by the Athenians, 
466. 

Necko succeeds Psammetichus L in 

Egypt, 615, 
N&tnea,, battle of, 394. 
Nemean games founded, 573. 
Nineveh taken by Cyaxares, 606. 
Nisaea conquered by the Athenians, 

424. 

- reconquered by the Megarians, 
409. 

Notiuvn,, Antiochus is defeated by 
Ly sander off, 407. 



OcJius succeeds Artaxerxes in 

Persia, 359. 
- reduces Egypt to submission, 

340. 



Odessus founded by Miletus, 592. 
Oenophyta, the Boeotians defeated 

by the Athenians at, 456. 
Olpae, defeat of Spartans and 

Ambraciots at, 426. 
Olynthus at war with Sparta, 383. 
defeats Teleutias and the Spar 
tans, 381. 

surrenders to Polybiades, 379. 

at war with Philip. 349. 

fall of, 348. 

Onomarchus succeeds Philomelus, 

354. 

conquers Coronea, 352. 

is utterly defeated on the 

coast of Magnesia by Philip, 352. 

rcAomemwbesieged by the Argives, 

418. 

the Lacedaemonians defeated 

at, 375. 
massacres at, by the Thebans, 

370. 

destroyed by the Thebaas, 363. 

" Orest&ia," the, of Aeschylus acted, 

458. 
Oreus liberated by the Athenians, 

Chalcidians, and Megarians, 341. 
Oropus betrayed to the Boeotians, 

411. 
- seized by exiles from Eretria, 

..66. 

Orsippus of Megara, 720. 
Orthagoras becomes tyrant of 

Sicyon, 670. 



P aches blockades Miletus by land, 
428. 

at Notium, 427. 
actoluS) engagement between the 
Greeks and Persians on the, 395. 

Pammenes, the Theban, marches to 
support Artabazus, in revolt 
against the king, 353. 

Panactum betrayed to the Boeo 
tians, 422. 

destroyed, 420. 

Panathenaea founded at Athens, 
566. 



190 



INDEX. 



[PAN 



Pimtaleon, king of the Pisdt'ans. 

672. 

Panyasis, an epic poet, 489. 
Parium founded by the Milesians, 

Erythraeans, and Parians., 708 
Parmenides of Elea, 504. 
Parinenio and his son executed in 

Philotas, 330. 
Parthenon, the, at Athens com 
pleted, 438. 

PoMscufiias conquers Cyprus, 476. 
Pausanias is condemned to death, 

and goes into exile at Tegea, 395. 
Peirawm, the Athenians blockade 

the Spartan fleet in, 412. 
failure of Spartan attack on, 

429. 

Peiraeus completed, 477. 
Peisander, the epic poet, 648. 
Peisander of Samos proposes the re 
turn of Alcibiades to Samos, 411. 
Peisistratus, tyrant of Athens for 

first time, 560. 
Pelopidas assists in liberating 

Thebes, 379. 
marches to protect Larissa 

against Alexander of Pherae, 

368. 
in Thessaly, he is imprisoned 

by Alexander, 366. 
is sent against Alexander of 

Pherae, 364. 

slain at Cynocephalae, 363. 

Peloponnese invaded by Dorians, 

1103. 

invaded by the Thebans for 

the first time, 369. 

invaded by the Thebans for 

the second time, 369. 
invaded the third time by the 

Thebans, 366. 

for the fourth time, 362. 

Peloponnesian War, the, 431-404. 
Peloponnesians march to establish 

Isagoras at Athens, 507. 

defeated by Phormio, 429. 

defeated by Athens a second 

time, 429. 

pass from Tissaphernes to 

PhamabazuSj 411. 



Perdiccas /., king of Macedonia, 

700. 
Perdiccas II, attacked by Sitalces 

and the Athenians,, 429. 
PerdiccaslL joins the Athenians, 

423. 
blockaded by the Athenians, 

417. 
Perdiccas III. slain in battle 

against the Illyrians, 359. 
Periander succeeds Cypselus *at 

Corinth, 625. 

dies, 585. 

Pericles sole ruler at Athens, 444. 

invades Megara, 431. 

dies, 429. 

Perinthus and Megara, sea-fight 

between, 565. 

" Persae" of Aeschylus, 472. 
Persia and Lacedaemon, first and 

second treaty between, 412. 

and Sparta make a third 

treaty, 411. 

in great disorder, 362. 

Persian fleet almost entirely de 
stroyed oft, Mount Athos, and the 
army in Thrace, 492. 

war, first, 490. 

war, second, 480. 

fleet defeated at the Eury- 

niedon, 466. 

at Cyprus, 449. 

fleet, the, takes Chios and 

Lesbos, 333. 

Phalaris tyrant of Agrigentum, 

572. 
Pharnalazus invites a Spartan fleet 

to the Hellespont, 412. 

supplies the Spartans with 

money and wood, 410. 

retains the Athenian envoys 

for three years, and then sends 
them to the sea coast, 408. 

repulses the Greek cavalry at 

Dascylium, 396. 

invades Abydus, 394. 
kaselis in Lycia founded by 
Dorians, 690. 

Phayllus falls while invading 
eastern Locris, 352 



PIT] 



INDEX. 



191 



Pheidias, the sculptor, 445. 

at Olympia, 436. 

death of, 431. 

Pheidon, king of Argos, drives out 

the Eleans, 748. 
Pherecydes of Syros, 560. 
Philip II. succeeds m Macedon, 

359. 
withdraws from Amphipolis, 

and defeats the Paeonians and 

Illyrians, 359. 

besieges Amphipolis, 358. 

conquers Amphipolis, 357. 

defeats the Illyrians, 356. 

takes Ab&era, Maronea, and 

Methone, 353. 

defeats Phayllus, but is 

severely defeated by Onomar- 
chus twice, 353. 

takes Pherae and Pagasae, 

352. 

falls sick and retires from 

Thrace, 352. 

attacks Arybbas, king of the 

Molossi, 351. 

at war with Olynthus, 349. 

celebrates Olympic games in 

Macedon, 348. 
negotiations for peace between 

Athens and, 347. 

chosen to preside over the 

Pythian games, 346. 

attacks the Illyrians, Bar- 

danians, and Triballi, 345. 

makes an attempt on Megara 
which fails, 343. 

establishes Philistides as 

tyrant in Oreus, 343. 

establishes Alexander in Epi- 

rus in the room of Arybbas, 343 

establishes his power in 

Euboea, 343. 

in Thrace, 341. 

besieges Selymbria, PerinthuSj 

and Byzantium, 340. 
at the head of the Amphic- 

tyons defeats the Amphisseans, 

339. 
raises the siege of Byzantium 

and marches into Scvthia. 339. 



Philip II. marries Cleopatra, 337. 

- assassinated at his daughter's 
marriage, 336. 

Philippi founded, 356. 
PMUstus, the historian, 397. 
Philocrates, peace of, 346. 
- goes into exile, 343. 
Philalaus gives laws to the Thebans, 

728. 
Philomelus and the Phocians are 

defeated by the Thebans, and 

himself slain, 354. 
Philoxenus, the dithyrambic poet, 

398. 
Phtiasrian exiles, the, demand of 

the Lacedaemonians to be re 

stored to Phlius, 383. 
Phlius besieged by Agesilaus, 

380. 
Phocaeans, the, attain great power 

by sea, 575. 

- expelled from home by Har- 

_ >n 



Phocian, the, or third Sacred War 

breaks out, 355. 
Phocians, the, attack Delphi, 

448. 

- the, invade Locris, 395. 

- destruction of the, 346. 
Phocylides of Miletus, 532. - 
Phoebidas seizes the Cadmeawith 

the assistance of Leoutiades, 
383. 

- ravages Boeotia, but is slain 
by the Theban cavalry, 378. 

Phormio at Naupactus, 430. 

- defeats the Peloponnesians in 
the gulf of Corinth, 429. 

Phmortes ascends the throne of 

Media, 656. 
Phrynichiis wrote the " Capture of 

Miletus," 491. 

Phrynichus assassinated, 411. 
Pindar, the lyric poet, 480. 
Pisatans under Pyrrhus defeated 

by the Eleans, 572. 
PittaciLS overthrows Melanchrus, 

tyrant of Mitylene, 611. 

- is "aesynmete" 01 Miletus. 
589. 



192 



INDEX. 



[PLA 



Plataea, seeks the protection of Pygela, Thrasylus defeats the 



Athens, 519. 



Milesians at, 410. 



defeat of Persians by the Pylus blockaded by the Spartans, 

Hellenes at, 479. | 425. 

attacked by the Thebans, 431. i the Lacedaemonians surrender 

besieged by the Peloponne- j at, 425. 

sians, 429. attempt to recover, 425. 

- surrenders, 427. | is retained by Athens, 421. 



destroyed by the Thebans, 



reconquered by the Spartans 

409. 



Pythagoras of Samps victorious in 
boxing at Olympia, 588, 

reinstituted or 



374. 

Plato, the philosopher, 399. 

visits Dionysius II. 368, 361. , 

Plato, the comic poet, 391. ; Pythian games 

Pleistarchus succeeds Leonidas as ; extended, 586. 

king, 480. 1 

Pkistoana of Sparta invades -^ 

Plutarch of Eretria applies to Rfiegium founded by Chalcis, 743. 

Athens for help, 351. I Rhodes revolts from Athens, 411. 
PolycUitus, the sculptor, 445. i Rhoeteum and Antandros taken by 
Polvcrates, tyrant of Samos, 532. I Lesbian refugees, 424. 
attacked by the Lacedae- battle at, 411. 

monians, 525. 

killed by Oroetes, 522. g 

Polydorus succeeds Jason, 370. 



o , . 
is slain by Polyphron, his 

brother, 370. 

Polygnotus, the painter, 445. 
Polyphron is slain by Alexander of 

Pherae, 370. 
Porus is defeated by Alexander, 

326. 
Potidaea revolts from Athens, 432 

capitulates, 430. 

Prodes, tyrant of Epidaurus, 625. 
Prodicm, the Sophist, 419. 
Propylaea, the, completed at 

Athens, 433. 
Protagoras (born 482, died 411), 

421. 
Psammenitus succeeds Amasis in 



Egypt, 526. 
Psammetichus, 
Corinth, 585. 



last tyrant of 



Psammetichus /., king of Egypt, 

650. 
Psammetichus //., king of Egypt, 

595. 
Pseudo-Smerdis usurps in Persia 

for sevan months, 521. 



Sacadas of Argos gains the prize 
for the flutes in the first three 
Pythiads, 585. 

Sadyattes, king of Lydia, 629-617. 

of Lydia at war with Miletus, 

623. 

Salamis in Cyprus, victory of Athe 
nians over the Persians at, 449. 

Salamis, the Greeks del eat Xerxes 
at, 480. 

Sainian exiles at Zancle in Sicily, 
494. 

Samius, the Spartan admiral, co 
operates with Cyrus against 
Artaxerxes, 402. 

Samos, revolution at, 565, 

and Miletus at war about 

Priene, 440. 

besieged for nine months, 440. 

conquered, 439. 

revolution, at, 412. 

capitulates to Lysander, 404. 

Sappho of Lesbos, 610. 

Sardis taken by the Cimmerians, 
635. 



-TEL] 



INDEX. 



Scvrdis taken by Cyrus, 546. 

"burnt by the lonians, 499. 

Sargon, king of Assyria, 721-704. 
Scione captured by Brasidas, 423. 

retaken by the Athenians. 

421. 

Sdinus founded by Ilyblaean 
Megara, 628. 

and Egesta. quarrel between, 

416 (cf. 409). 

Selymlria founded by Megara, 660. 

Sennacherib, king of Assyria, 704- 
681. 

Shalmanesar V. } king of Assyria. 
726-721. 

Sicilian expedition of Athens, 415. 

Sicily, invasion of, by the Cartha 
ginians, 409, 406 (cf. 383, 368). 

Sicyon taken by Dorians, 1074. 

Simonides, the lyric poet, 480. 

Sinope founded by Miletus, 770. 

Sitalces forms an alliance -with 
Athens, 431. 

Smyrna colonised, 1015. 

Socrates, 419. 

death of, 399. 

Solon, archon at Athens, 594. 

Solygea, the Athenians attack the 
Corinthians at, 425. 

Sophocles is born, 495. 

obtains a victory over Aeschy 
lus, 468. 

. death of, 406. 

Sparta, earthquake at, 464. 

congress at, 432. 

enters into alliance with 

Dionysius I., 395. 

Spartans conquer Messenia, 724, 

668. 
overthrow the tyranny in 

Corinth, 581. 
compel the Mantineans to 

pull down their walls, 385. 
march against the Illyrians, 

384. 

at war with Olynthus, 383. 

aid the Tegeate exiles, 370. 

take Carya, invade the Par- 

rhasia, and defeat the Arcadians, 



Sphacteria, Spartans cut oft in, 

425. (See Pylus.) 
S2Jhodrias attempts to seize Peir- 

aeus. 378. 
Stagira in Cbalcidice, founded by 

Andros, 654. 

" Stesichorus " of Himera, 610. 
StrattiSj the comedian, 393. 
Strouthas defeats Thimbron, 391. 
Sunium fortified by the Athenians, 

tiusa, embassy of the Greeks to, 367. 
Sybaris founded by Achaeans, 721. 

destroyed by Croton, 510. 

Sybarites defeated by the Crotoni- 

ates, 447. 

Sybota, naval engagement at, 432. 
Syracuse founded by Arcldas oi 

Corinth, 734. 
establishment of democracy 

at, 466. 

at war with Leontini, 427. 

extreme form of democracy in, 

prepares a fleet, 398. 

Syracusan army in mutiny, 404. 



Tamynae, battle of, 350. 
Tanagra, the Athenians defeated 

by the Spartans at, 457. 
Tarentum founded by the Parthenii 

from Sparta, 708. 
Tauromenium, Dionysius repulsed 

at, 394. 

taken by Dionysius, 391. 

Tcyea acknowledges the hegemony 

of Sparta, 554. 

attacked by the Argives, 418. 

Telestes, the dithyrambic poet, 398. 
Teleutias, with the Aeginetans, 

attacks the Peiraeus and carries 

off much booty, 389. 
is sent to Olynthus with 

troops, 382. 

and the Lacedaemonians 

entirely dei'eated by the Olyn- 

thians, 381. 
death of, 381. 



* 94 



CTHA 



Thaktas the Cretan, 665. 

Tiiasos colonised by the Parians, 

708. * 

reduced "by Athens, 463. 

revolt of, 410. 

Theagenes, tyrant of Megara, 625. 
Thebans, the, attack Plataea, 431. 
-T victorious at Leuctra, 371 
wish, to destroy the remnant 

of the Lacedaemonians, but are 

dissuaded from their purpose by 

Jas.on, 371. 

destroy Plataea, 374. . 

invade Peloponnesus, restore 

Messenia, and rebuild Messene, 

369. 
invade Thessaly and deliver 

Pelopidas, 365. 

victorious at Mantinea, 362. 

ask Philip's aid against the 

Phocians, 347. 

capitulation of the, 338. ' 

Thebes dismantles Thespiae, 423. 

the liberation of, 379. 

state congress at, 366. 

sends out a fleet to the Hel 
lespont under Epaminondas, 363. 

revolt of, 335. 

Themistocles, archon at Athens, 

493. 

archon of Athens, 482. 

ostracised, 471. 

Theognis of Megara, 543. 
Theopompus, king of Sparta, 743. 
Thespis of Icaria, 535. 
Thera, colonised, 1074. 
Themm&nes attacks the generals in 

the assembly, 406. 
is sent to Lysander to ask for 

peace, 405. 
sent to Sparta with nine others 

with full powers to make peace, 

404. 
put to death at the instance 

of Cntias, 404. 
Tfiero, tyrant of Agrigentum, 489. 

dies, 472. 

Tkessalians invade Thessaly, 1133. 
Thiinbron is sent out as harmost, 

400. 



Thivribron is joined by the remnant 

of the Ten Thousand, 399. 
-* is defeated and killed by Strou- 

thas, 391. 

Thrasylulus tyrant of Miletus, 612. 
Thrasybulm succeeds Hiero in 

Syracuse, 467. 
Thrasylmlus repulses a- sortie from 

Deceleia, 410. 
reduces towns in Thrace and 

Thasos ; 408. 
with 70 followers, goes to 

Phyle, 403. 
defeats the Lacedaemonian 

garrison sent to besiege Phyle, 403. 
- is slain at Aspendus, 390. 
Thrasydaeus, defeated by Hiero, 

472. 

Tlvrasylus returns to Athens, 408. 
Thurians, the, severely defeated by 

the Lucanians, 390. 
Thurii founded by the Athenians, 

443. 
Thucydides banished, 424. 

history ends, 411. 

Thyrea " " 

24. 
Tiqlath-Pilesarll. . king of Assyria, 

745-726. 
Timocreon of Rhodes, lyric poet, 

471. 

Timoleon leaves Corinth for Syra 
cuse, 344. 
defeats the Carthaginians in 

Sicily on the Crimesus^ 340. 

dies at Syracuse, 337. 

Timotheus, the dithyrambic poet, 

398. 
takes Corcyra, and defeats the 

Spartans under Nicolochus at 

Alyzia, 375. 
is sent to aid Corcyra, but is 

superseded by Iphicrates and 

Chabrias, 372. 
is sent with a fleet to assist 

Ariobarzanus. and takes Samos. 

366. 
acts against Cotys, king 

of Thrace, and supersedes Iphi 
crates, 365. 



INDEX. 



195 



T^motJleus fails to recover Ampbl- 

polis, 365. 
superseded by Ergophilus, 

362. 

attacks the allies and is de 
feated, 357. 

dies at Chalcis, 354. 

Tissaphernes assists the Chians 
( and Erythraeans against Athens, 
1 412. 
makes an alliance with -Sparta. 

412. 
quarrels with the Pelopon- 

nesians, 411. 
takes Alcihiades prisoner to 

Sardis, 411. 

arrives at Ephesus, 411. 

is made satrap of Sardis, 400. 

declares war on Agesilaus, 

396. 
- put to death by Tithraustes, 

who succeeds him, 395. 

'ithraustes sends Timocrates to 

stir up the Greek states against 

Sparta, 395. 

Torone taken by Brasidas, 424. 
- recaptured by Cleon, 422. 
Tralles and Magnesia submit to 

Alexander, Parmenio is sent to 

take possession of them, 334. 



Tvapezus founded by Sinope, 757. 
the Ten Thousand "return to:- 

401. 

Troezen taken by Dorians,. 1074. 
Troy, fall of. 1183 B.C. (see note.) 
Tuscans defeated by Hiero, 474. 
Tyre, siege of, 332. 
Tyrtaeu^ came from Athens to 

Sparta about 683. 



X&nthippus arch on at Athens, 479. 
X&vithws, the Lydian, an historian, 

463. 
JCenarcfiMS, .the son of Sophron, the 

author of " Mimes," 892. 
Xenophanes <c floruit," 540. 
Xenojphon, the historian, 397. 
Xerxes becomes king of Persia, 485. 

winters at Sardis, 481. 

defeated by th.e Greeks at 

Salamis, t 480. 
assassinated by Artabanus, 

465. 



Zaleucus gives laws to the Locrians. 

660. 
Zeno, the philosopher, 448. 



Punted by T. and A. CONSTABLE, Printers to His Majesty 
at the Edinburgh University Press 



106067